STAT3 Mutations, Parasitic Infection and the IL-17 Pathway | Chapter 10 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Parasitic infections may be commonly found in global distribution in endemic areas. Parasitic infections are associated with a serum IgE response and peripheral eosinophilia. Strongyloides and Ascaris infections are examples of parasitic infections and pulmonary disease. The combined presence of parasitic infections and high immunoglobulin level E (IgE) levels can be found in isolation or as a clinical manifestation of certain immune defects.

The Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) as a group of distinct primary immune disorders should be considered in the differential and treatment of parasitic disease. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of recognizing underlying immune defects in the clinical setting of parasitic infection, including HIES.

Author(s) Details

Amrita Dosanjh

Pediatric Respiratory, UCSD Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Estimating Access to Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Facilities in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia, in Reference to National Coverage | Chapter 7 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Introduction: The coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia especially in Wolaita Sodo town are notwell studied. Therefore, the main objective of this study was estimating access to drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene facilities in Wolaita Sodo town, southern Ethiopia, in reference to national coverage.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study design method was employed in the study in 588 households of Wolaita Sodo town inhabitants. Face-to-face interview to household owners, in-depth interview to key informants, reviewing secondary data and observational check lists were used to collect data. Districts were selected using simple random sampling techniques, while systematic random sampling technique was applied to select households. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out.

Results: The community has access to improved water supply which was estimated to be 67.9%. The main water sources of the town were tap water within the yard, which was estimated to be 44.7% and tap water in the community was 40.0% followed by private protected well which was 14.5%. Ninety-one percent of the households had at least one type of latrine in their homes. The most common type of latrine available to households was pit latrine with superstructure which was estimated to be 75.9% followed by a pit without superstructure, 21.3% and more than half of the respondents had hand washing facilities in their compound. Occupational status, educational status and training on water, sanitation and hygiene related topics were significantly associated with use of improved water source, improved sanitation and hygiene facilities.

Conclusion: In order to address the demand of the town, additional water, sanitation and hygiene programs are required.

Author(s) Details

Amha Admasie

School of Public Health, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.

Ashenafi Debebe

School of Public Health, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Preparedness Assessment for Disaster Management among Dhahran Al Janoub General Hospital Staff during Hazm Storm Support 1436/2015 | Chapter 4 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

The hospital staff need to be competent to utilize the disaster plan to cope up with an emergency situation. Therefore, the present study has aimed to assess the knowledge of hospital staff of Dhahran Al Janoub General Hospital regarding the disaster management during Hazm Storm Support 1436/2015 in Saudi Arabia. The study has employed quantitative research design to assess the disaster management of hospital staff by recruiting 84 individuals (physicians, nurses, technicians, officers and housekeepers) from Dhahran Al Janoub General Hospital. A questionnaire was given to respondents to gather information about disaster management. The obtained data was analysed using SPSS through chi-square analysis. The study results clearly depicted that the hospital staff with fewer years of experience had lesser knowledge about the disaster assessment as compared to the experienced employees. There was no statistically significant relationship identified between different job categories in the hospital and the level of knowledge about presence or absence of the emergency response plan. However, there was a statistically significant association found between different job professions and level of awareness regarding presence or absence of hospital command centres. The study concluded that the knowledge of emergency preparedness among the hospital staff was moderate and the hospital staff should participate and seek opportunities to prepare assessment for disaster management.

Author(s) Details :

Ahmed Ali Shammah

Department of Clinical Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, EMS, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Infection and Foot Care in Diabetics Seeking Treatment in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha State, India | Chapter 15 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem that can cause a number of serious complications. Foot ulceration is one of its most common complications. Poor foot care knowledge and practices are important risk factors for foot problems among diabetics. The present study was undertaken in the diabetes outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital to assess the practices regarding foot care in diabetes, find out the determinants of foot ulcer in diabetics, and offer suggestions to improve care. After informed consent, a total of 124 diabetics were interviewed to collect all relevant information. The diabetic foot care practice responses were converted into scores and for the sake of analysis were inferred as poor (0–5), fair (6-7) and good (>7) practices. Of the study population, 68.5% (85/124) consisted of men. The disease was diagnosed within the last 5 years for 66% (81/124) of the study participants. Of the study subjects, 83% (103/124) were on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), 15.3% (19) on insulin and 2 on diet control only. Among them about 18.5% had a history of foot ulcer. 37.9% reported using special slippers, 12% diabetics used slippers indoors and 66.9% used slippers while using toilet. Of the study subjects, 67.8% said that feet should be inspected daily. 27.4% said they regularly applied oil/moisturizer on their feet. There is a need on part of the primary or secondary physician and an active participation of the patient to receive education about foot care as well as awareness regarding risk factors, recognition, clinical evaluation and thus prevention of the complications of diabetes.

Author(s) Details

Sonali Kar

Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

Shalini Ray

Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

Dayanidhi Mehe

Department of Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024, India.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

The Effect of Information Technology on the Recruitment Process in Healthcare Organization in Makkah City | Chapter 14 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

As technology advances in recruitment and selection, it provides job seekers with more options for finding a career in the healthcare industry. At the same time, it helps organizations to streamline the hiring process. Internet job sites like CareerBuilder, Monster and Hot Jobs allow job seekers to post resumes which employers can view online and select qualified candidates. In addition, online candidate-tracking systems are helpful to employers. Social media forums like Facebook and LinkedIn are useful sources when selecting proper candidates for the healthcare industry. This research set aims to analyse the role of information technology in the healthcare recruitment process. The literature review demonstrates the impact of IT on the recruitment process in the healthcare sector. Literature from different secondary sources, such as books and journals, are discussed in this research. The methodology applied in this research takes a descriptive analytical and deductive approach. In the data collection and analysis part, the data were collected from 130 human-resource employees from different healthcare organizations in Makkah city. A quantitative data analysis method has been followed in order to analyse the raw data obtained in the survey. This helps to get appropriate outcome for the research by fulfilling its research aims and objectives. The outcome results from this study were as follows: First, that using information technology will be very useful in the recruitment process, because it will provide a better outcome than traditional methods. Second, there will be improvement in the quality of recruitment when using information technology in the recruitment process. Third, there will be a small improvement in communication when IT is used in the recruitment process rather than traditional methods. Finally, using IT in the recruitment process will be much more effective than the traditional way. The recommendations made from this study are the following: As outcome is one of the major components in the healthcare industry recruitment system, the applications for providing care must not vary between institutions. In order to improve quality in the healthcare recruitment process, it is necessary to apply IT in the proper way. For instance, those applications that have security issues and may lead to data leakage of candidates must be avoided. Using social media could be useful in enhancing communication in the healthcare recruitment process. The government has an important role to play in setting up standards for organizations. In turn, following these standards could be helpful in guaranteeing the effectiveness of the system.

Author(s) Details

Zamil Khadija

Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Alsharqi Omar

Department of Health Services and Hospital Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Antioxidant Vitamins in Health and Disease | Chapter 12 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

The neutralization or mopping up of reactive species produced during oxidative stress is achieved by synergistic actions of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, including antioxidant vitamins. The sources, functions and effects of toxic and deficiency levels of these antioxidant vitamins are reviewed using information obtained from research articles, textbooks, monographs and internet platforms. Findings show that these antioxidants are commonly available in our daily meals and are therefore easily obtained if adequate diets are taken. However, some disease conditions can cause their deficiencies, while reduced or excessive (especially through supplementations) intake can produce disease states. It is suggested that assessment of these antioxidant vitamins be individualized, especially in critical situations like pregnancy.

Author(s) Details

S. O. Ogbodo

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.

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Factors Affecting Surgical Delay: A Case Study of One of General Hospital at Jeddah City | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

This research is a descriptive analytical study investigating the factors affecting surgical delay in the surgical department at one of general (public) hospital at Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The research proposes and tests four independent variable factors affecting surgical delay. These factors are: clinical, administrative, hospital capabilities and care givers, while surgical delay is the dependent variable. In order to explore this issue, a quantitative method was used to collect primary data through designing a self-administered questionnaire, which was administered at the hospital. The research targeted the surgical department’s doctors at the hospital, who are the decision makers with regards to surgeries in their specialties; they total 106 doctors, and because of the small number of the research population the total number was taken as the research sample. The research retrieved 91 valid questionnaires (96.46%). Results show that the four factors are significantly important, demonstrating a positive statistical relationship between the four factors and surgical delay. This research recommends activating the clinical coordinators’ position in all surgical departments in turn, to improve the communication channels between all the concerned departments and the patients in order to run out the patients’ appointments and surgery booking. Moreover, it is vital to frame, develop and manage all the surgical waiting lists in all surgical departments for easy access and control.

Author(s) Details

Baragaba Amani

Department of Bed Management, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Alsharqi Omar

Department of Health Services and Hospital Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administration, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

View Book –  http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Bite Marks Analysis – An Innovative Computer Assisted Approach for Gender Determination | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Background: Bite mark analysis is an imperative area of forensic odontology and considered the commonest form of dental evidence presented in the criminal court. The process of comparing bite marks with a suspect’s dentition includes analysis and measurement of shape, size and position of an individual’s teeth. The present study was aimed to evaluate the bite marks of males and females using a novel indirect computer assisted method and explicate its application in forensic odontology.

Materials and Methods: 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females) with normal occlusion were included in the present study. Bite registrations were obtained with help of modelling waxes and positive replica prepared with dental stone and barium powder. Intra oral periapical radiographs were taken for the same. The radiographs obtained were scanned and analyzed by measuring tools using Sidex is next generation software. Intercanine distance (ICD), line AB, angle ABX and angle ABY were measured. Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare the bite marks of males and females.

Results: The mean ICD of males and females was found to be 32.95 mm and 29.84 mm respectively and statistically highly significant with a p value < 0.001. The mean ICD, line AB and angle ABX were found to be higher in males when compared to females.

Conclusion: Analysis of bite marks usingthis novel computer assisted method is a simple, reliable, easily reproducible and economical technique with confidentiality of identity of the participants involved.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Tanya Khaitan

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dental Institute, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, 834009, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Vishal

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Institute, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand, 834009, India.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

STAT3 Mutations, Parasitic Infection and the IL-17 Pathway |Chapter 10| Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Parasitic infections may be commonly found in global distribution in endemic areas. Parasitic infections are associated with a serum IgE response and peripheral eosinophilia. Strongyloides and Ascaris infections are examples of parasitic infections and pulmonary disease. The combined presence of parasitic infections and high immunoglobulin level E (IgE) levels can be found in isolation or as a clinical manifestation of certain immune defects.

The Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) as a group of distinct primary immune disorders should be considered in the differential and treatment of parasitic disease. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of recognizing underlying immune defects in the clinical setting of parasitic infection, including HIES.

Author(s) Details

Amrita Dosanjh

Pediatric Respiratory, UCSD Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Antibacterial Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa and Phyllanthus amarus against Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diarrheal Patient | Chapter 9 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Herbal medicine has gained a rapid growth in the past years, in the field of medicine worldwide. India is the greatest producer of medicines in the world as compared to other countries. The aim of the present study was to analyze and evaluate antibacterial activity of herbal plants against pathogenic bacteria isolated from diarrheal patients. The main focus of the paper was on varied advantageous characteristics of herbs as anti-diarrheal agents. In the study it is cleared that the medicinal plants play a vital role against diarrhea diseases. Various herbal plants and plants extract has a significant anti-diarrheal activity. Boerhaavia diffusa and Phyllanthus amarus were the main plants in research work against bacteria Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and E. coli and out of which Phyllanthus amarus showed more zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus bacteria while both the plants showed similar results for Pseudomonas and E. coli.

Author(s) Details

Deeja Kapoor

Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women’s University, Ajmer-Jaipur Expy, Jharna, Rajasthan 303122, India.

Khushbu Verma

Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women’s University, Ajmer-Jaipur Expy, Jharna, Rajasthan 303122, India.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148