Combination Therapy in Treatment of Experimental Ischemic Heart Disease – A Preclinical Study | Chapter 13 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

The present study was designed to investigate the role of combined administration of Ramipril and Candesartan against in vitro myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups (= 6) and treated with saline (10 mL/kg), Ramipril (2 mg/kg), Candesartan (1 mg/kg), and the combination of both drugs, respectively 24 h before induction of global ischemia (5 min of stabilization, 9 min of global ischemia and 12 min of reflow). Combination of Ramipril and Candesartan when compared to the monotherapy significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitric oxide and decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In addition, the superior protective role of combination of Ramipril and Candesartan on ischemia induced myocardial damage was further confirmed by well preserved myocardial tissue architecture in light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis studies. The combination was proved to be effective in salvaging the myocardial tissue against ischemic reperfusion injury when compared to the monotherapy of individual drugs and further investigations on protective mechanism of drugs by increasing the nitric oxide level at molecular levels are needed.

Author (s) Details

Dr. Mohamed Saleem Thattakudian Sheikuduman
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Riyadh ELM University, P.O.Box 84891 Riyadh 11681, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Rajampet-516126, Andhra Pradesh, India

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Aromatic Effectiveness for the Elderly at Day Care Service Center: Toward Regional Vitalization Using the Wastes | Chapter 12 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Objective of study was to find out a beneficially recycling of the thinned and chopped woods massively produced in mountainous regions Japan. Essential oil extraction was one of the effective approaches to overcome its issues. Materials from Crytomeric japonia, Lindera umbellata, Thujopsis dolabrata and Anise magnolia chips was applied for oil extraction by steam distillation and was chemically analyzed by Gas Chromatography. Preclinical studies of the essential oil were done with a support of the elderly commuting to the Day Care Service Center. Test room was created with the forest pictures, bird singing and water flowing sound as back ground music. Essential oil-flavored test was done to know the elderly preference using the questionnaire test. The most favorite flavor by the elderly was Lindera umbellata due to make them refreshing. But they selected Thujopsis dolabrata flavor instead of Lindera umbellata, when changing the napkin. It implies that “Different flavor for Different situation”. Based on these results the flavored-napkin with antibacteria potency is a potential candidate to develop for the aged along with well-being and amenity life. 

Author(s) Details

Nagai Katsuto
Shirakami Aroma Institute (Limited Liability Company), 88-2 KamiKamuro, Hitotsumori, Ajigasawa, Aomori 038-2723, Japan.

Sasaki Jin-Ichi

Aomori University of Health and Welfare, 58-1 Mase, Hamadate, Aomori 030-8505, Japan.

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Rhamnus prinoides – A Basotho Medicinal Plant with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential |Chapter 11 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Rhamnus prinoides finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicine in Southern Africa, which include treating pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, gonorrhoea, muscular rheumatism, cleaning the blood, bladder and kidneys. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts from leaves and stem-bark of R. prinoides have been evaluated for their antioxidant activity by 1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The percentage values of radical of scavenging activity of these extracts have been found to be in the range of 03.33±0.89 to 59.55±2.27% at various concentrations. The IC50 values of these extracts have been determined to be in the range of 710.50 to >3000 µg mL-1. The positive control, ascorbic acid, showed an IC50 value of <200 µg mL-1. Additionally, all these extracts have also been evaluated for their inhibitory effect against six bacterial isolates viz. Escherichia coli (wild), Escherichia coli (H0157), Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogens, Pseudomonas spp. and Serratia marcescens and two fungal isolates viz. Penicillium digitatum and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition have been found to be in the range of 8.8±3.0 to 15.8±1.4 mm diameter against bacterial isolates and 10.3±1.8 to 14.3±2.5 mm diameter against fungal isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these extracts have been found to be in the range of <31.25 to > 1000 µg/mL. Further studies on this plant will be useful to commercialize products from this plant.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Manoharan Karuppiah Pillai
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho

Dr. Sibusisiwe Magama
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho.

Ms. Lehlohonolo Isaac Santi
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho.

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Formulation Development of Naturally Sweet Herbal Oral Health Drinks and Its HPTLC Analysis | Chapter 15 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Ashwagandha, Tulsi, Mulethi, Awala, Shatavari, Gokharu, Arjun, Giloy, Safed musli, Kalimirchi, Haldi, Jaiphal can be used as an active ingredients and aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceutical in health dinks. The product can be developed by treating concentrates of each crude drug with purified water. TLC profile, HPTLC method development and validation can be carried out using Gallic acid as a standard. A new simple, sensitive, selective, precise and robust HPTLC method for analysis of Gallic acid in health drink can be developed. Precoated silica health drink aluminium plate 60F-254 (20 × 10 cm) with 200 µm thickness can be used as stationary phase while toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: ethanol (6: 4: 0.3: 0.4) system can be developed as a mobile phase. Spectrum analysis showed the same Rf values and spectrum pattern of standard and sample. The method can be validated by using accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, ruggedness and recovery as applicable parameters. The developed method can be quite good and most sensitive for the present products. The unpleasant and bitter taste of the product can be masked by different concentrations of aqueous extract of Stevia. Sweetness potency can be determined by taste evaluation method. 1% Stevia extract may be sufficient to produce most palatable and acceptable sweet preparation.

Author (s) Details

Dr. V. R. Salunkhe
Department of Pharmacognosy, Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Dist. Sangli, Maharastra, India.

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Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System: A Review | Chapter 14 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Gastroretentive drug delivery system is the drug delivery system in which drug remains for a long span. In this review, we have discussed about factors affecting gastric retention and effervescent and non-effervescent drug delivery systems with the diagram in detail. It also includes in vitro evaluation techniques for evaluation of the performance of gastroretentive systems. Detail about mucoadhesive formulations and their role in gastroretention is also being discussed in this review. This review gives a full summary on gastroretentive drug delivery systems.  Author(s) Details

Mrs. Bhumika Mangla
Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Jayoti Vidyapeeth Women’s University, Rajasthan, India.

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The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Xylopia aethiopica Fruits on the Histomorphology of the Kidney of Albino Wistar Rats: Advanced Study | Chapter 7 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

 Aims: The study investigated the effect of ethanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruits on the histomorphology of the kidney of albino Wistar rats. Study Design:  Twenty (20) albino Wistar rats weighing between 130–180 g were assigned into four (4) groups of five rats each. Group 1 served as the control group. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received orally, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg of Xylopia aethiopica ethanol extract per kilogram body weight respectively for twenty-eight (28) days. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Methodology: The body and kidney weights were observed and kidney was excised for histological studies using haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. Results: The final body and kidney weight showed significant weight increases in test groups compared with the control. The photomicrographs revealed gradual epithelial lining degeneration, vascular degeneration, inflammation and renal tubular degeneration and necrosis in the test groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can, therefore, be concluded that the administered doses of the extract of Xylopia aethiopica have nephrotoxic effects on the kidney of albino Wistar rats.

Author(s) Details

Dr I. U. Umoh
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

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A Survey of the Antibacterial Activity of Three Plants Used in the Congolese Herbal Medicine Practiced by the Healers in the City of Lubumbashi: Recent Advancement | Chapter 6 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Since 2002, the folk medicine promotion and integration in the Congolese health’s system has become a reality because it has been proven to be a viable alternative for the majority of the population daily confronted to health problems due to the lack of access to primary care services.  Moreover, the cohabitation between the modern and folk medicine has been successfully implemented in many countries throughout the world and consequently, those countries are looked at a best examples of the integration of the folk medicine in their health’s system. As a result, a great number of the illnesses that torment people living in rural and urban areas are both cured by the modern physicians and traditional healers using different therapeutic approaches and schemes. The City of Lubumbashi in the DR Congo is also concerned this phenomenon and what precedes is raising the issue of ascertaining that the therapeutic implemented by traditional healers is valid.  Such a preoccupation is considered by the present survey which is interested in the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of three medicinal plants used in herbal medicine by the healers in the city of Lubumbashi. It is based on the ethnobotanical knowledge and the testing of sensitivity of the pathogen microbes towards the plant extracts of Terminalia mollis, Diospyros batocana and Antidesma venosum. Results from the testing of the plants extracts revealed that Proteus mirabilis is the microbe more sensitive to the extracts of T. mollis whereas Salmonellatyphii showed greater sensitivity to extracts of D. batocana and A. venosum. Concerning Klebsiella pneumoniae, no sensitivity was observed towards extracts of A. venosum. The extracts from T. mollis and D. batocana, tested against the reference bacteria, revealed to be bacteriostatic which behaviour justifies their use as sources of drugs against infectious illnesses by the healers in the City of Lubumbashi.

Author(s) Details

L. M. Shengo
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of the Sciences, University of Lubumbashi, P.O.Box 1825, Likasi Avenue, Katanga Province, The Democratic Republic of Congo.

 T. H. Mundongo
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lubumbashi, P.O.Box 1825, Kasapa Road, The Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

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The Immunomodulatory Activity of Some Maltese Medicinal Plants: Tradition, Science and Future Prospects | Chapter 5 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Aims: To review previous studies conducted on some Maltese medicinal plants for their immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes. Methodology: Human peripheral lymphocytes were obtained from the whole blood of human healthy volunteers. Several extracts were obtained from Olea europea L., Ephedra fragilis Desf., Aster squamatus (Sprengel) Hieron., Glebionis coronaria (L.) Tzvelev, Calendula arvensis L., Carlina involucrata Poir., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Galactites tomentosa Moench, Inula crithmoides L., Leontodon tuberosus L., Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth, Sonchus oleraceus L. and Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. These extracts, pure metabolites and phytohaemagglutinin were tested on both resting and stimulated lymphocytes. The blastogenic transformation was monitored by morphological observations and biochemical tests using the WST-1 tetrazolium reagent and the LDH cytotoxicity assay. Results: This current study collates all previous studies. Most of the extracts tested exhibited lymphocyte activation, with the blastogenic transformation. Some extracts exhibited comparable activity to that of PHA. Metabolites showing such effects include oleuropein, ephedrine, cucurbitacin E and flavonoids. Extensive research on cucurbitacin E reveals that, in lymphocyte-cancer cell cocultures, this metabolite induces lymphocyte activation, which in turn provokes cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Conclusion: The effects of extracts on the lymphocytes was exhibited by several extracts. In the case of oleuropein, ephedrine and cucurbitacin E, the relationship between structure and function can be deduced. However, the extracts from the Asteraceae family contained flavonoids, but no further chemical characterization was carried out. This review recommends further chemical characterization of the extracts and in depth analysis of the mechanisms for lymphocyte activation by plant metabolites. On the other hand, this study shows the potential use of these extracts to boost the immune system, alongside chemotherapeutic agents.

Author(s) Details
Ms. Tamara Attard
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta.

Prof. Everaldo Attard
Division of Rural Sciences and Food Systems, Institute of Earth Systems, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta.

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Lactic Bacteria’s, Saccharomyces Yeast, Kefir, Kombucha and Spirulina: Foods of the Future | Chapter 4 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Scientific and technical aspects as related to use of microorganisms in functional foods supplementation are highly diverse and complex, since they have to deal with the viability of microorganism’s strains as well as with the safe production, nutritional composition and acceptability of the new product. However, limited information is available on the microorganism’s (Lactic bacteria’s, Saccharomyces yeast, Kefir, Kombucha and Spirulina) which can be used in functional food supplements, as well as how to use these microorganisms and generation of foods of the future. This review reports detail this information. The data from this review can be useful to support for the development of new functional products, with microbial supplementation, to the market. 


Author(s) Details

Karina Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes
Post-Graduate Program in Food Science, Department of Bromatological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Barão of Geremoabo Street, s/n, Ondina, CEP: 40171-970, Salvador, BA, Brazil.  


Janice Izabel Druzian
Post-Graduate Program in Food Science, Department of Bromatological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Barão of Geremoabo Street, s/n, Ondina, CEP: 40171-970, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

Rosane Freitas Schwan
Department of Biology, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), 37.200-000, Lavras-MG, Brazil.


Itaciara Larroza Nunes
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), 88034-001, Florianópolis-SC, Brazil.

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Spilanthes paniculata Flower Extracts Attenuates Paracetamol Induced Liver Damage by Antioxidant Mechanism | Chapter 3 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

The present study was undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Spilanthes paniculata Wall. ex DC flower extracts against paracetamol-induced liver damage. The study was conducted in 36 male Wistar rats of either sex, and six groups were established. While the first group was maintained as normal control (NC, distilled water), Groups 2 to 6 were administered 3 g/kg Paracetamol (PAR) for 2 day, 100 mg/kg Silymarin (SMR), 500 mg/kg Methanolic extract (MESP), Petroleum ether extract (PEESP), Ethyl acetate extract of S. paniculata (EAESP) suspended in 0.5% tween 80 plus PAR, respectively. PAR was administered in the same schedule as in group 2, the treatment with silymarin and extracts was given for 10 days orally, respectively. It was observed that PAR significantly increased serum Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity liver MDA levels (P<0.01) and significantly decreased liver Glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.01), when compared with the normal control group (NC). On the other hand, statistically significant (P<0.01) changes were observed in the biochemical parameters of the group which was administered SMR, PEESP and EAESP. Compared with the pathological changes observed in the liver in the form of congested sinusoids and centrilobular necrosis, in the group which was administered paracetamol alone (PAR), lesions were determined to be less severe particularly in the group (PEESP and EAESP). The               study shows that administration of PEESP and EAESP offered a therapeutic potential for the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol via regulation of endogenous antioxidant system in liver.  

Author(s) Details

Syed Ayaz Ali
Department of Pharmacology, Y. B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Shukla Mahanand
Department of Pharmacology, Y. B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Subur W. Khan
Department of Pharmacognosy, Y. B. Chavan College of Pharmacy, Dr. Rafiq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

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