Novel Discoveries in Atmospheric Physics | Book PI International

Climate change is currently an eminent theme in politics. Thereby, so-called greenhouse gases such as CO2 are considered as the real cause for the temperature rise of the global atmosphere. This theory traces back to measurements of Tyndall at the end of the 19th century which revealed that CO2 absorbs thermal radiation, in contrast to N2 and O2, the main components of the air, which do not absorb. Subsequently, Arrhenius tried to theoretically implement the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which meanwhile became known, assuming that the atmosphere is warmed up by the black-body radiation of the Earth surface, but solely due to the CO2 and to similar IR (infrared) absorbing greenhouse gases such as CH4. This means: The atmosphere would not be warmed up if no CO2 or other greenhouse gases were there. Thus the temperature of the atmosphere would be identical with the temperature of the absolute zero. After the Second World War, this approach was continued by Plass and others, based on IR- spectroscopic, and regarding an extra-terrestrial albedo or solar reflection coefficient. 

However, such an extra-terrestrial reflection coefficient for solar light, which implicates a viewpoint outside of the atmosphere, cannot be exactly defined since various effects are occurring within the atmosphere, for instance turbulences by winds. They cannot be expressed by a simple coefficient given by the ratio between emitted light and incident light. Moreover, by means of the usual determination methods, applying radiative field measurements, no reliable values for the terrestrial albedo were available, since the incident sunlight is independent of the distance to the surface, whereas the emitted light depends on the distance.

In contrast, the method developed by the author and described in the first enclosed article entitled »The solar-reflective characterization of solid opaque materials« enables the direct determination of the – colour dependent – solar absorption coefficient, thus of the complement of the solar reflection coefficient. This determination is feasible with a lab-like method by measuring the temperature increases of well-characterized plates, preferably from aluminium, during a permanent solar irradiation period. Since any solid plate emits thermal radiation when its temperature is increasing, a constant limiting temperature is reached when the intensity of the emitted radiation is identically equal to the intensity of the emitted radiation. Since this limiting temperature could not be achieved within the measuring period of 30 minutes when 20 mm thick aluminium plates were used, due to their high heat capacity, separate cooling down measurements were made in a darkened room, which enabled a mathematical modelling of the whole process and a determination of the – colour dependent – limiting temperatures. Besides the evaluation of the colour-specific solar absorption coefficients, this method also enables studying the influence of other factors affecting the warming up process, such as the heat capacity of the plates or the convection of the air.

A second, even graver flaw in conventional atmospheric physics arises from the fact that, with regard to the interactions between infrared light and gases, solely the light absorption was measured, but never the warming-up that is the temperature rise of irradiated gases. For the usual IR-spectroscopic application, whereby specific bonds in organic molecules can be identified, those features are not relevant. However, in this case where the temperature represents the relevant parameter, it should have been a peculiar requirement to gather empirical facts in order to ascertain the theoretical assumptions. But incredibly enough, this has never been done so far. Hence it was the subject of the author’s further work, described in the second enclosed article entitled »The thermal behaviour ofgases under the influence of infrared-radiation«, and delivering surprising results which entirely contradicted the former conventional perception.

The particular difficulty at this measuring problem arises from the very low heat capacity of gases, which runs the risk that the measurement results are interfered by the measuring vessel ore tube. Moreover, the walls of the vessel or tube may directly be warmed up by the (IR) light, which has to be used for the irradiation of the gas, indirectly influencing the gas temperature. This problem could be widely solved by using quadratic (25 cm x 25 cm) 1 m long tubes from Styrofoam which were mirrored with thin aluminium foils and covered by thin transparent plastic foils on both ends. The temperatures were measured at three different positions with mirrored Hg-thermometers. Besides sunlight, mainly IR-spots were used as radiation sources. However, in the latter case an inherent intensity loss along the tube could not be eliminated but solely minimized.

Such a simple apparatus may appear unprofessional and not suited for modern research work. However, it is indeed adequate to the problem, although it necessitates only simple materials which are partly available in do-it-yourself shops. But these materials were not available at the time when the pioneer work was done, whereas the professional IR-spectrometers are not suited for this measuring problem since they were constructed for another, analytical purpose. Besides, one should be aware that many trials were needed in order to optimize the apparatus and to obtain reliable results, and that the measurements required considerable skill.

Surprisingly, these results revealed that all gases absorb infrared radiation, even noble gases. Thereby they are warmed up to a limiting temperature where the intensity of the absorbed radiation was identically equal to the intensity of the emitted radiation by the gas. Moreover, air (or a 4:1 N2/O2 mixture) and pure carbon-dioxide were warmed up to a nearly equal extent. Solely in the line Argon – Neon – Helium significant differences appeared. Applying the kinetic gas theory, the radiation intensity of the emitted light turned out to be proportional to the collision frequency of the particles (atoms or molecules). When the particle size of different gases is unchanged, the collision frequency is proportional to the gas pressure and to the square root of its absolute temperature. Comparing the results obtained under sunlight with those obtained with artificial light, and applying Planck’s temperaturedependent radiative distribution law, the effective wave length was roughly estimated at 1,9 μm.

This behaviour can be explained by the occurrence of an internal energy of the molecules or atoms, which is due to vibrations of the atom nuclei or of the electron shells, and which is induced by the applied IR-radiation. That kind of energy is not identical with the apparent heat of the gas which is measurable with a thermometer, and which is due to the kinetic translation energy of the entire atoms or molecules. Thus, when the particles are in an excited vibrational state, induced by thermal radiation, solely a part of this internal energy is transformed into apparent heat, induced via collisions, whereas another part is emitted as radiation, without having achieved a change of apparent heat. Contrariwise, warming up of a gas leads to acceleration of the particles, and via collisions to enhanced internal vibrations enabling thermal radiation.

Obviously, in this case the amount of absorbed IR-radiation is so low that it cannot be detected with a conventional IR-spectrometer. However, it is high enough to induce a measurable temperature increase. On the other hand, the absorption values obtained with IR-spectroscopic methods appear to be irrelevant for a temperature enhancement, since that kind of adsorption may possibly lead to internal vibrations which cannot be readily converted to apparent heat but rather to a radiation emission.

As a consequence of the theoretical finding that the thermal radiation of a gas was proportional to the pressure, one could assume that the atmosphere emits thermal radiation in both directions, namely towards Space as well towards the Earth surface, and that the intensity of the atmosphere radiation at the Earth surface was proportional to the atmospheric pressure and to the square root of the absolute temperature of the atmosphere at the Earth surface. Thus in the case of a steady equilibrium state the intensity of the black-body radiation of the Earth surface – or of a particular section of it – must be equal to the intensity of the thermal atmospheric radiation which may be called counter-radiation. This approach is similar to the approach of the Stefan-Boltzmann relation. However, it is more expressive since it comprises the pressure as a predominant parameter, whereas in the Stefan-Boltzmann relation solely the absolute temperature appears (in the fourth power). Thereby no information is given as to how this temperature is achieved.

 Thus, in the third enclosed article entitled »The Thermal Radiation of the Atmosphere and its Role in the so-called Greenhouse Effect« it stood to reason to validate this approach by empirical evidence, (1) by using the method described in the first article where coloured aluminium plates were exposed to sunlight, and (2) by varying the atmospheric pressure by means of varying the sea level of the measurement station. Thereby, the steady states at the limiting temperatures were needed where the intensity of the emitted thermal radiation of the plates is equal to the intensity of the counterradiation of the atmosphere. In order to get the real limiting temperatures (and not the computed ones), thinner aluminium plates were used (8 mm thick, instead of the original 20 mm ones) which entailed shorter measurement periods.

In order to get optimal results, it would be necessary to solely vary the atmospheric pressure whereas the other parameters (atmospheric temperature and intensity of the sunlight) should be invariant. However, in reality this condition can inherently not be fulfilled since the variation of the sea level of the measuring station implicates a variation of the temperature of the ambient atmosphere as well of the intensity and the character of the sunlight. Thereby, at higher sea levels the atmospheric temperature decreases whereas the intensity of the sunlight increases. Nevertheless, acceptable results were obtained with four differently coloured plates (white, blue, green and black) at the two measuring stations in Switzerland Glattbrugg (430 m above sea level, approx. 0.948 bar atmospheric pressure) and Furka-Pass (2430 m above sea level, approx. 0.738 bar atmospheric pressure), yielding a so-called atmospheric emission constant A of approx. 22 Wm-2bar-1K-0.5. As a consequence, it can be stated that the counter radiation of the atmosphere indeed contributes to the climate, but as a whole and insofar as the atmospheric temperature decreases at higher sea levels. Thereby the trace gas is insignificant. Furthermore, it can be supposed that the mean temperature of the Earth surface would decrease when, as a result of a reduced assimilation of plants, the oxygen-content of the atmosphere and therefore the atmospheric pressure would generally decrease since the nitrogen-content can be assumed to be constant. This may possibly explain – or at least partly – climate changes during earlier palaeontology aeons. But in particular, it reveals the important role of nitrogen in the atmosphere, which does not only reduce the chemical aggressiveness of oxygen, but, due to the thereby enhanced atmospheric pressure, it also enables an overall convenient climate, which is prerequisite for life on this earth.

Author (s) Details

Thomas Allmendinger
Independent Scholar, ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland.

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Cosmic Photon Radiation as the Driving Force for the Expansion of the Universe in Accordance with Hubble`s Law | Chapter 07 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

The Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC) offers no physically reasoned explanation for the expansion of cosmic space in accordance with Hubble’s Law. As will be illustrated in the course of this paper, an explanation for this special expansionary behaviour of the cosmos can be derived using Planck’s Law for the energy of photons E = h . v. It then emerges that the constant increase in the entropy of cosmic photons in the course of universal time causes the expansion of cosmic space. The permanently driving force for this expansion was thus from the very beginning the electromagnetic radiation energy, has remained so to date and will remain so for the entire duration of the universe.

The SMC postulates a continuous reduction of the speed of expansion due to the braking effect of the gravitation of all the cosmic masses – which does not correspond to reality. The author therefore proposes that the SMC be amended to reflect today’s insights by formulating an energy model of the cosmos based on the Planck action quantum h, which could be denoted as “Planck’s World Model of the Cosmos”.

Author(s) Details

Guido Zbiral
Independent Private Scientist, Klosterneuburg, Austria (Retd.).

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Relation between Planck’s Constant and Speed of Light, Predicting Proton Radius More Accurately | Chapter 06 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

Twin physics is a new physical model in which the basic features of quantum mechanics and relativity theory are combined to a manageable description, which can be represented geometrically. In this model, descriptions of phenomena on a quantum-mechanical scale can be combined with those at an astronomical scale by considering them in a complementary way. This is in agreement with the view of Heisenberg and carried out by using the definition of complementarity as given by Max Jammer.

The obtained theoretical results can be identified with basic physical phenomena like the forces of nature, a series of elementary particles and gravitational waves. If the proton, as described by twin physics, is combined with the early ideas of Einstein about the energetic equivalence of mass and radiation, a relation between the Planck’s constant and the speed of light is found, in which the mass and the radius of the proton occur. In this relation also a factor four appears, being an integer, which is acting as a conversion factor from mass to radiation. Besides of that, the relation leads to a more accurate prediction of the radius of the proton.

Author(s) Details

Anna C. M. Backerra
Gualtherus Sylvanusstraat 2, 7412 DM Deventer, The Netherlands.

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Dark Matter and Dark Energy as a Derivate from Cosmic Photon Radiation | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

For many decades now, intensive efforts have been undertaken by physicists and cosmologists around the world to investigate dark matter (DM), without noticeable success to date. This situation leads me to believe that one of the assumptions underlying the current doctrine in physics may well be erroneous or incomplete – since a breakthrough in this field of physics and cosmology would otherwise surely have already taken place by now.

For the past years, the CERN Nuclear Research Centre has set itself the task of using the LHC (upgraded to 13 TeV) to investigate the still completely mysterious phenomenon of dark matter. The researchers at CERN favour the assumption – shared by the majority of physicists and cosmologists, that DM consists of massive non-baryonic particles (so-called WIMPs, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) hitherto completely unknown to us, which produce a non-baryonic, static gravitational field distributed throughout the entire cosmos.

I cast doubt on the above assumption that DM is massive in nature. As this paper will show, DM can be far better (and more simply) explained in terms of a non-massive gravitational derivate of those photons consumed in the expansion of cosmic space (by performing the work of expansion), those photons thereby being transformed into static physical quantities. This gravitational derivate creates a free gravitational field (decoupled from the other forces of nature) of non-baryonic, static nature, regionally varying in intensity, and this is known as dark matter.

Author(s) Details

Guido Zbiral
Independent Private Scientist, Klosterneuburg, Austria (Retd.).

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Meditator’s Non-contact Effect on Cucumbers | Chapter 04 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

We clearly show a non-contact effect in which the “presence” of a test subject (meditator) inside a pyramidal structure (PS) affects biosensors without making any physical contact. This is the world’s first report to show this type of effect by scientific measurements. We used edible cucumber sections as the biosensors and measured the concentrations of gas emitted from the sections by a technique developed by our group. The concentrations of gas emitted from biosensors were measured for a total of 1152 sample petri dishes; each dish contained four cucumber sections so that a statistically meaningful comparison could be made. We found that there was a statistically significant difference (p=8.7×10-9, Welch’s t-test, two-tails) in the concentration of emitted gas depending on whether the meditator was present or absent in the PS. Our experimental results clearly indicated that there was a scientifically measurable effect on biological objects with which the meditator had no direct physical contact.

Author(s) Details

Osamu Takagi [Ph.D. (Sci.)]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

Masamichi Sakamoto [M.A.Sc.]
Aquavision Academy, 1228-3 Tsubuura, Narita, Chiba 287-0236, Japan.

Hideo Yoichi [M.A.]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

Kimiko Kawano [Ph.D.]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

Mikio Yamamoto [Ph.D.(Med.), Ph.D.(Engin.)]
International Research Institute (IRI), 1108-2 Sonno, Inage, Chiba 263-0051, Japan.

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Advanced Dyeing with Natural Dyes for Interior and Fashion Designs | Chapter 03 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

Textile industry has an economic importance all over the world. Its artistic coloration serves the interior and fashion designs through the printing processes. Natural dyes are a fascinating phenomenon that enticed researchers to their chemistry and hues to explore that no other dyes provide a better opportunity of how to protect and respect the environment. Therefore, there has been an international revival to the status of natural colors to increase the value of textile products and contributes them in creating a more ideal healthy eco-friendly textiles home environment to consider both the aesthetic and functional aspects of furnishings and clothing. This chapter deals on dyeing silk fabric by a mixture of different percentages of cochineal, turmeric and indigo powders in water-acetone co solvent. Extraction and dyeing processes were conducted in one step at different pH values using ultrasound as a promising technique in saving energy. The pH values control the adsorption capacity and play an important role for obtaining different hues which could be attributed to their resonating structures. So, this chapter give the chance to improve the natural dyeing heritage to meet the economic and environmental future demands. Furthermore, this chapter provided ideas by computer aided design (CAD) to exhibit some interior and fashion designs from the resulted hues using tie and dye technique to rethink sustainable practices for different outputs designs.

Author(s) Details

Heba F. Mansour
Department of Art Education, Faculty of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman and Department of Oman Textile Printing, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt.

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A Bridge between Quantum Mechanics and Astronomy | Chapter 02 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

Small-scale physics called quantum mechanics is still incompatible with large-scale physics as developed by Einstein in his general relativity theory. By using twin physics, which is a dualistic way of considering the universe, and following Einstein’s later advice, it is possible to create a bridge between these extremes. The formulation is carried out using complementary language in which time and space necessarily occur as two distinct qualities, although they are treated analogously. The basic item in the theory is the Heisenberg unit (H-unit), which is defined as a constant amount of potential energy, supplied with mathematical attributes; by interaction with another H-unit, these attributes may be transformed into real phenomena. With this theory, a photon can be described such that its velocity is constant without using the related postulate, showing how the speed of light is the link between small- and large-scale physics. The existence of Planck’s constant emerges from the explanation. The photon is related to a massless electron, which is described by the mirrored interaction of H-units.

Author(s) Details

Anna C. M. Backerra
Stichting de Schat, Gualtherus Sylvanusstraat 2, 7412 DM Deventer, The Netherlands.

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Second-order Gauge-invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory: Current Status Updated in 2019 | Chapter 01 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 3

The current status of the recent developments of the second-order gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory is reviewed. To show the essence of this perturbation theory, we concentrate only on the universe filled with a single scalar field. Through this review, we point out the problems which should be clarified for the further theoretical sophistication of this perturbation theory. This review is an extension of the review paper [K. Nakamura, “Second-Order Gauge-Invariant Cosmological Perturbation Theory: Current Status”, Advances in Astronomy, 2010 (2010), 576273.]. We also expect that this theoretical sophistication will be also useful to discuss the future developments in cosmology as a precise science.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Kouji Nakamura
Gravitational-Wave Science Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan.

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Patient Organ Dose Estimation Due to Some Selected Fluoroscopy Procedures Using Kerma Area Product Meter: The Ghananian Experience | Chapter 12 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

Aim: With the acquisition of the Kerma-Area-Product (KAP) meter, patient organ doses were estimated in order to analyze patient dose trends due to fluoroscopy exposure in two fluoroscopy centers. This gave the opportunity to report patient doses due to fluoroscopy exposure using the appropriate dosimetry procedure.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Two fluoroscopy machines located in Greater Accra Region of Ghana in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Cocoa Clinic. The duration of the study was within six and a half months.

Methodology: 182 adult patients undergoing barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examinations collectively were investigated (98 men, 84 women, age group 20-81 years). Radiation dose was measured using KAP meter. The KAP readings, patient’s data and other relevant information from the control console were used to estimate organ doses using Monte Carlo base program (PCXMC version 2.0). Quality control tests were performed on the two fluoroscopy machines before the start of the study to ensure that they were performing self-consistent with national and international requirement.

Results: The ovaries, breast, thyroid and testes recorded high doses for barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow and retrograde urethrogram examination respectively. Mean KAP values measured were 23.57±1.78 Gy.cm2, 18.08±2.08 Gy.cm2, 5.99±0.62 Gy.cm2, 8.53±0.67 Gy.cm2, 2.13±0.15 Gy.cm2 and 1.47±0.07 Gy.cm2 for barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examinations respectively. 

Conclusion: The recorded KAP values for all the examinations were compatible with ICRP values but in some cases where a little bit lower. The KAP values were also higher than NRPBs’ values except for barium swallow examination which was comparable. Due to the varying patient doses in the institutions, standard protocol for fluoroscopy procedure is recommended. 

Author(s) Details

E. Gyasi
Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Prof. C. Schandorf
Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic, Accra, Ghana.

Prof. M. Boadu
Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic, Accra, Ghana and Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Dr. P. K. Gyekye
Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic, Accra, Ghana and Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

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Use of Banana Tree Residues as Pulp for Paper and Combustible | Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 2

The aim of this work is to characterize banana tree residues and use it in pulping and combustion processes. The soda-anthraquinone pulping of the banana tree residues can be simulated by polynomial models, and then predict the pulp properties (yield, Kappa number, viscosity and brightness) as a function of operating variables (temperature 160 to 180°C, time 40 to 60 min and soda concentration 7.5 to 12.5%) with errors less than 20%. Operating under optimal conditions (160°C, 40 min and 7.5% soda), a pulp with 39.23% yield, 28.59 Kappa number, 48.25% brightness, 1149 ml/g viscosity, 48.0 Nm/g tensile index, 3.80 kN/g burst index and 4.83 mNm2/g tear index was obtained. On the other hand, heating values (17751 kJ/kg), the flame temperature (1300 to 2400°C) and dew point temperature (48 to 54°C), of the different values of excess air used (10 to 50%) in combustion of the banana tree residues were determined and compared with other non-wood lignocellulosic materials. As a consequence, the price of energy obtained by combustion of these residues (3.38 10-6 €/kJ) was less than the price of coal (25.94 10-6 €/kJ) and much lower than those of fluid fossil fuels (>37.67 10-6 €/kJ).

Author(s) Details

A. Rosal
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemical Engineering, University Pablo of Olavide, Sevilla, Spain.

Juan D. Delgado
Department of Physics, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo of Olavide, Sevilla, Spain.

Z. González
Institute of Ceramics and Glass (CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.

E. Espinosa
Department Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

I. Bascón-Villegas
Department Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

A. Rodríguez
Department Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

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