Ornamental Aquatic Plant Nutrition: A Study on Qualitative and Quantitative Differences in Morphological Traits of Waterwort, Elatine gratiloides a Cunn | Chapter 06 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of different organic substrates on quantitative and qualitative morphological traits of freshwater ornamental aquatic plant, waterwort (Elatine gratiloides).

Place and Duration of Study: Ornamental Fish and Aquatic Plant Unit, Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Ludhiana (Punjab), India, from 11th April 2016 to 10th September 2016.

Methodology: An experiment was designed as per the principles of completely randomized block design with five treatments viz., control (T0) – without any manure, only soil/sand mixture (2:1), while vermi compost (T1), poultry manure (T2), cattle manure (T3) and goat manure (T4) @ 2% in triplicate in the mud pots of 3.5 L capacities.

Results: From the performance of waterwort with respect to different organic manures, it was observed that, there was considerable increase in plant biomass, total plant length, number of leaf and runners containing high nitrogen content. Among all treatments, poultry manure (T2) illustrated superior results and showed significant difference among the treatments, except for the cattle manure (T3).

Conclusion: Due to the easy availability of cattle manure in local market at affordable price compared with poultry manure; it is recommended that application of cattle manure @ 2% with soil/sand mixture (2:1) helps to increase plant biomass along with other parameters including plant length, number of leaves, number of runners with high nutrient value in terms of nitrogen content for culture and propagation of ornamental aquatic plant waterwort.


Author(s) Details

Dr. Sachin Onkar Khairnar
Department of Aquaculture, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, India.

Dr. Vaneet Inder Kaur
Department of Aquaculture, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, India.

Dr. Abhed Pandey
Department of Aquaculture, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, India.

Dr. Sandeep Sharma
Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, India.

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Water Quality Status of Three Different Rivers for Fadama-oriented Irrigated Agriculture in Ogbomoso, Southwest Nigeria | Chapter 05 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate water quality status of rivers OBA, ORA and SUNSUN for irrigated agriculture in Ogbomoso, Southwest Nigeria.

Study Design: Data were analyzed using 2 x 3 factorial design, with two sampling sites and three sampling periods as treatments in three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in six Fadama sites along three rivers (Oba, Ora and Sunsun) in Ogbomoso located on Latitude 8°10’N and Longitude 4°10’E, about 342 m above the mean sea level, southwest Nigeria between December 2014 and March 2015 during the 2014/2015 irrigation (dry) season.

Methodology: Water samples were collected from two representative Fadama sites along each river and at three different periods during the 2014/2015 irrigation season for the determination of water quality indicators and overall water quality index (WQI).

Results: There was significant temporal variation in the water quality indicators of the three rivers. Except for permeability index (PI), other integrated water quality characteristics of SAR, KI, SSP, ESP, MI and RSC varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to sampling site and period, and the average values were within permissible limits for irrigation. Of the three rivers, only River SUNSUN had salinity and sodicity classification of C3-S1 and water quality index of class III during a particular period.

Conclusion: The results from SUNSUN River showed that care must be taken in using the river for irrigation, especially at the peak of dry season, because of salinity problem. Further studies is also recommended for heavy and trace metals contamination as a result of the observed anthropogenic activities in the vicinity of the river bodies.

Author(s) Details

Toyin Peter Abegunrin
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Gabriel Oladele Awe
Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Modupe Adebola Adejumobi
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

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Conceptualizing Cancer Stem Cells in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma | Chapter 04 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

There is increasing evidence that the growth and spread of cancers is driven by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) – the only cells that are capable of long-term self-renewal, proliferation and generation of the phenotypically diverse tumor cell population. CSCs have been identified and isolated in a variety of human cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Studies of many cancer types including HNSCC have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple CSC subtypes within HNSCC, making investigation reliant on the use of multiple markers. The concept of cancer stem cells may have profound implications for our understanding of tumor biology and for the design of novel treatments targeted toward these cells. In this chapter we explore the current knowledge in CSC markers. We further attempt to conceptualize the role of CSCs in HNSCC – its implication in tumorigenesis and the possible additional approach in current treatment strategies.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Amit Shah [MDS]
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India.

Shilpa Patel
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India.

Jigna Pathak
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India.

Niharika Swain
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India.

Shwetha Kumar
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai 410209, India.

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Comprehensive Indexing and Relaxed Querying of Compressed XML Data (CIRCX) | Chapter 03 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Extensible Markup Language stays at the top as a basic and an efficient way of content processing over internet. Being extensible, it give rise to innovative tag definitions unlike its counterparts with a pre-defined set of keywords. For storing such a customizable language in compressed form, compact storage structures like RFX, QUICX were proposed. As an extension, perspective shifted towards an efficient and optimized way of retrieving data from the same. CIRCX, (Comprehensive Indexing and relaxed querying of Compressed XML Data) propose an indexing approach which may be applied on wide array of datasets. The core functionality of this technique lies in removing the redundant data from the stored format. The duplicates are removed and are represented in such a way that space required for storage decreases further. Various elements of an XML document such as node and attribute are indexed so that the indexed file is used as reference from then on for query processing and not the original file. CIRCX thus, provides a comprehensive method to index compact storage structures. Thinking out-of-the-box, this work explores the area of approximate answering for Xpath queries where data is retrieved from compact storage structures and not the original XML document. The latter part i.e. data retrieval is performed by specialised query processing algorithms involving the QUICX storage structure. A significant rise in compression ratio is observed while using the CIRCX approach. Approximate answering provides prospect for developing efficient search engines in future.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Radha Senthilkumar
Department of Information Technology, MIT, Anna University, Chennai, India.

Dr. Gomathi Nandagopal
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Vel Tech University, Avadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600062, India.

Ms. S. G. Radhika
Department of Information Technology, MIT, Anna University, Chennai, India.

Ms. V. Renuka
Department of Information Technology, MIT, Anna University, Chennai, India.

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Assessment of Rainfall Scenario in Determining Flood Risk at Terengganu Watershed Malaysia | Chapter 02 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

The future of climate lies on the hand of individual who is an active member that contributes input in the biosphere. The amount of climate change will largely influence the water flow in the river through the emission of solar radiation, increase in temperature, heat-trapping gases. There is a need to control pollution, flood hazard, check water quality and monitor sediments and water flow in the drainage basin. Soil and Water Assessment Tools SWAT is one of the best methods of the application being used for hydrologic assessment as well as monitoring events that occur in the catchment studies. Mitigation can simply determine how to reduce the human hazard, in controlling the climate change that affects water flow in river Terengganu. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) provides the simulated rainfall from 1973 to 2017. The precipitation and other weather parameters were used for the purpose of this study and the resultant effect is the production of predictive flood hazard event within the catchment area of Kuala Terengganu.


Author(s) Details

Ibrahim Sufiyan
Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

K. D. Mohammed
Department of Geography, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.

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Intensity Noise Properties of Blue-violet Nitride Semiconductor Laser | Chapter 07 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

In this chapter, we present a research study on the noise properties of the blue-violet InGaN laser diode. The noise is described in terms of the spectral properties of the relative intensity noise (RIN). We examine the validity of the present noise modeling by comparing the simulated results with experimental measurements available in literature. We also compare the obtained noise results with those of AlGaAs lasers, which clarifies dependence of RIN on the emission wavelength. Also, we examine the influence of gain suppression on the quantum RIN. In additions, we examine the changes in the RIN level when describing the gain suppression by the case of inhomogeneous spectral broadening. The results show that RIN of the 410nm-InGaN laser is nearly 9 dB higher than that of the AlGaAs laser.

Author(s) Details

Moustafa Ahmed
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia and Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Minia University, 61519 El-Minia, Egypt.

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Gender Sensitivity, Asymmetries, ‘Acroamatic Turn’ . A Renewed Approach to Some ‘Gendered’ Methodologies | Chapter 08 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

In this contribution four interconnected assumptions are made and explored as a normative interpretation of “what is at stake”. 1) It is necessary to exclude any kind of narrow mono-disciplinary approach from the analytical tools used by scholars in characterising contemporary global, alias transnational, phenomena. Political philosophy and social sciences should use both old and new conceptual tools, in the way of a reflexive paradigm, in order to define supra individual identities (group identities). This would ensure much greater efficacy in dealing with emerging cross-border issues. 2) Therefore, hybrid syntagmas, such as “Gender Sensitivity”, “Moral Minority” and “Adaptive Preference”, should be reframed given the coloured, prismatic facets of the ever-changing global/ transnational scenario for the sake of peace and emancipation. 3) In fact, these syntagmas should be taken into careful consideration by social scientists and political thinkers particularly in the case of ‘embedded analyses’, focusing on the real asymmetries of power existing within national, international and transnational contexts. 4). The hermeneutic approach, in the sense of the auditory/acroamatic dimension of qualitative research methods, is therefore of great importance here, for the following reason.

Methodology, in the sense of the discourse on how to do research (method), coincides with the second-level reflection on hermeneutics, the technique of interpretation of symbolical textures and compacts. The reason for adoption of this methodical turning point is that of equipping social scientists and political thinkers with a more suitable definition of emancipatory issues and policies. This, in turn, is aimed at investigating the durable and potential cross-border effects.

Author(s) Details

Barbara Henry
DIRPOLIS Institute (Institute of Law, Politics and Development), Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Piazza Martiri Della Libertà 33, I-56125 Pisa, Italy.

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Quality of EIA Reports in Niger: The Importance of Public Involvement and Processes of Alternatives in Satisfying the Quality of EIA Reports | Chapter 09 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Until recently, absence or lack of adequate regulations and expertise in environmental studies’ field, projects executed in Niger were mainly based on technical and economic aspects; leading to unsatisfactory results with negative consequences on the environment. But, since the adoption of the Framework Law on Environmental management and Environmental Code by the Nigeriens authorities in December 1998; taking into account of environmental issues have become a requirement in all social and economic activities. Thus, Niger as other countries is using Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as one of the Environmental management tools. The EIA process is reliant on the information presented in the Environmental Impact Report (EIR). The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of EIA using Lee and Colley package. As a result, this study highlighted the importance of public involvement and processes of alternatives in the quality of EIA reports in Niger.

Author(s) Details

Zakari Mahamadou Mounir
Département Hygiène Sécurité Environnement, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Université de Zinder, Niger

Fabrice Nguema
Faculté d’Agronomie et des Sciences Agricoles, Université de Dschang, Cameroun.

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Development of Load Torque Estimation and Passivity Based Control for DC Motor Drive Systems with Reduced Sensor Count | Chapter 01 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

In this proposed work, Passivity Based Control (PBC) is selected for performing trajectory tracking control of DC motor. In PBC, Exact Tracking Error Dynamics Passive Output Feedback (ETEDPOF) method is preferred for buck converter-fed DC motor drive system. Under load conditions, load torque estimation is required to implement ETEDPOF. Also, load torque estimation is completed without using torque and speed sensor which reduces space and cost of the system. In load torque estimation, sensorless load torque estimation using online algebraic approach for buck converter with DC Motor as load is designed and developed. Further, the performance of Sensorless online Algebraic Approach (SAA) is compared with Sensorless Reduced Order Observer (SROO). Results are presented to validate the features of proposed schemes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. S. Ganesh Kumar
DEEE, Anna University, Chennai, India.

Dr. S. Hosimin Thilagar
DEEE, Anna University, Chennai, India.

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ANN with Fuzzification in Software Cost Estimation | Chapter 10 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 3

This paper tries to provide a prototype for cost estimation with fuzzification and ANN, which is a propositional calculus based on functional point of the training data set. These kind of solutions are regardless of mathematical views of the problem and it is useful for such case which does not have precise inputs, for instance in software cost estimation. There are methods in four major categories such as algorithmic COCOMO-II (Constructive Cost Model) model, functional point, analogy, expert judgment, top down and bottom down method which have their own pros and cons. Their merits will be discussed in comparison with the proposed methodology of ANN BP (Artificial Neural Network Back Propogation) and fuzzy logic; in order to achieve their more gain in estimation. It will lead us to know that which method should be used with specific conditions.


Author(s) Details

Dinesh Bhagwan Hanchate
Department of Computer Engineering, VP’s KBIET, Baramati, Pune, India.

Mahsa Hassankashi
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ovidius GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

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