Folk Beliefs of Vietnamese People | Book Publisher International

Vietnam has been being a country with many religions and beliefs. In the diversity of religions and beliefs, there are religions and beliefs imported from abroad, but there are also beliefs and religions that were born righteously in the country of Vietnam. In those beliefs, there have been folk beliefs. Folk beliefs have been formed in daily life and the process of the productive labor of people, over many generations of Vietnamese people. It (folk beliefs) has become an indispensable spiritual activity of the working people. Within the scope of the book, in addition to chapter 1: An overview of Vietnam’s religions and beliefs, the remaining four chapters focus on analyzing four typical folk beliefs, namely: The ancestor worship belief, the Mother Goddess worship belief, the Village’s Tutelary god worship belief and the soul worship belief.

Author (s) Details

Vu Hong Van
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Nguyen Trong Long
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Trinh Thi Thanh
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Tong Kim Dong
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

Pham Van Luong
University of Transport and Communications / University of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam.

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Relation of the Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses with Tumor Necrosis Factor- α among Patients in Babylon Province | Chapter 7| Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Background: Hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infectious and non-infectious agents. Hepatitis B and C are global health problem. Hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections are usually occur in the population due to their divers mode of transmission through blood. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus among population in Babylon province and evaluation of the levels of the TNF-alpha in infected patients with hepatitis B and C. Methods: The study was conducted on individuals referred to the Central Public Health Laboratory to detected the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in Babylon province. A total of 6061 samples was involved in this study, they surveyed by VIDAS test for demonstration of both viruses, then confirmed by real- time PCR. Concentration of TNF- α was measured in patients with hepatitis B and C and control group (Control group included healthy individuals with no history of renal or liver diseases and negative results for HBV and HCV test) by using ELISA test. Results: A total of 6061 individual were examine, amongst them, 18 (0.29%) were positive for HBV and 16 (0.26%) were positive for HCV by both VIDS test and real-time PCR.  Most of HBV infections seen among hemodialysis patients followed by haemophila, while most HCV infections seen among thalasemia and haemophila patients than others groups. The prevalence of both viruses was higher among male than female, and in urban than rural rejoin. Most of HBV infections were high in individual with age ranging between 20-29 and 30-39 years, while most HCV infections in individual with age ranging between 20-29 years, although it is statistically insignificant.  The TNF- α mean serum level was significantly higher in individual with HBV and HCV infection (68.7±12.84 pg/mL) and (89.1±22.017) as compared with control group (43.1±5.87 pg/mL). Conclusion: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus was relatively low. There are increasing level of TNF-α in the serum of patients with viral hepatitis B and C. 

Author(s) Details

Rasha Hadi Saleh
Department of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Babylon University, Iraq.

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Biodiesel Synthesis from Cameroon Palm Kernel Seed Oil | Chapter 1 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Aims: This study was aimed at synthesizing and characterizing a biodiesel from Cameroon palm kernel oilseed. Study Design: Synthesis was carried out on purified kernel oil by trans-esterification using methanol in basic medium. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory work was effectively carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering (Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria) and at the Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company (K.R.P.C), Nigeria, in the early part of the year 2017. Methodology: Oil was extracted from Cameroon palm kernel seeds, which constitutes an agricultural industrial waste, by mechanical expression, was purified and analysed. Palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel was synthesised by trans-esterification in methanol with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a base catalyst at the mass ratio PKO to methanol to KOH of 100:20:1. Results: The yield of optimised synthesis of biodiesel was 97%, with a useful by-product (glycerol) which has potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and engineering applications. PKO biodiesel was analysed using UV and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Biodiesel had the following physical characteristics: specific gravity 0.884 g/mL, ASTM colour 1.5, viscosity at 40ºC 4.9080 cSt, viscosity at 100ºC 1.7914 cSt, cloud point 17ºC, pour point 0ºC, flash point 50ºC, aniline point 90ºF, cetane number 28, and diesel index 25. The following chemical parameters were obtained for the synthesized PKO Biodiesel: sulphur content 0.0328% w/v, acid value 0.4488 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid (FFA) content 0.2244 mg KOH/g, iodine value 7.36 mg I2/g, saponification value 168.30 mg KOH/g, ester value 154.84 mg KOH/g, hydroxyl value 51.89 mg OH/g and peroxide value 3.20 meq/kg. Conclusion: These results of physical and chemical characterisation of PKO biodiesel fell

Author(s) Details

Dr. Alang Michael Bong,
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Peter T. Ndifon

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Yahya Muhammad Sani
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

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Impact of Globalization on Art and Dance | Book Publisher International

Background: Art is something that cannot be defined in mere words, but it’s much understandable by any human being. With its wide scope increasing by days passing by, art requires a lot of thoughts, creative impulse and an imaginative skill. Art has its own unique and different reasons to be formed. Indian dance forms have evolved through time but still have their original essence with India being global since the trade policy of 1991, the concept of globalizing and art form has reached a new level. These chapters will discuss how the classical and folk dance forms have taken unique twists, modernized and appealing culture at the same time people being able to interact globally and the exchange of ideas. It’s a very wide concept. Advancement in technology, transportation and communication has lead to the growth of globalization. The growth of international trade, ideas, and cultures also increased due to increased interaction between nation, states and people. Conclusion: The book has given its best reviews on Indian dance forms and how they can help in prospering unity and peace through their cultures. The young generation has a better and creative view; they are the means of promoting universal brotherhood. India has not only inculcated the westernization concepts but also has spread its impact globally.

Author(s)  Details

Deboleena Paul
Department of Creative and Festival Arts, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago

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Synthesis and Characterization of 4-[(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)Methyl]-4-Methyl-2-Phenyl-4,5-Dihydrooxazole| Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 4

The compound, 4-[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-methyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole 2 was prepared in high yield, through nucleophilic substitution reaction of the O-tosyloxazoline derivative 1, by heating in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and in presence of KOH as base. The structure of the synthesized compound was established on the basis of NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C), MS data and elemental analysis.

Author(s) Details

Sara Hajib
Doctoral Training “Bioactive Molecules, Health and Biotechnology”, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Center of Doctoral Studies “Sciences and Technology”, LCO, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Younas Aouine
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, P.B. 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir 80060, Morocco.

Anouar Alami
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Hassane Faraj
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco

Synthesis of Trans-3, 4-Dibenzyl-2-Oxo-Tetrahydrofuran: Advanced Study| Chapter 5 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 4

Trans-3,4-dibenzyl-2-oxo-tetrahydrofuran (6) a substituted tetrahydrofuranoid lignan was synthesized in 70% yield via the Stobbe condensation between (1) benzaldehyde and (2) diethyl succinate. The structure was confirmed by the spectral data such as infra-red, proton magnetic resonance and mass spectrum. It has two similar but non equivalent aromatic groups which appeared at δ: 6.48 – 6.76 and 7.06-7.25 as multiplets.

Author(s) Details –

Prof. I. R. Jack
Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Dr. K. O. Orubite
Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Estimating Access to Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Facilities in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia, in Reference to National Coverage |Chapter 7| Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Introduction: The coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia especially in Wolaita Sodo town are notwell studied. Therefore, the main objective of this study was estimating access to drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene facilities in Wolaita Sodo town, southern Ethiopia, in reference to national coverage.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study design method was employed in the study in 588 households of Wolaita Sodo town inhabitants. Face-to-face interview to household owners, in-depth interview to key informants, reviewing secondary data and observational check lists were used to collect data. Districts were selected using simple random sampling techniques, while systematic random sampling technique was applied to select households. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out.

Results: The community has access to improved water supply which was estimated to be 67.9%. The main water sources of the town were tap water within the yard, which was estimated to be 44.7% and tap water in the community was 40.0% followed by private protected well which was 14.5%. Ninety-one percent of the households had at least one type of latrine in their homes. The most common type of latrine available to households was pit latrine with superstructure which was estimated to be 75.9% followed by a pit without superstructure, 21.3% and more than half of the respondents had hand washing facilities in their compound. Occupational status, educational status and training on water, sanitation and hygiene related topics were significantly associated with use of improved water source, improved sanitation and hygiene facilities.

Conclusion: In order to address the demand of the town, additional water, sanitation and hygiene programs are required.

Author(s) Details

Amha Admasie

School of Public Health, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.

Ashenafi Debebe

School of Public Health, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. View Book –

The Crowdfunding: A New Financial Instrument for the Start-ups? | Chapter 01 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 4

Start-ups are new businesses, which need a good amount of equity to finance investments. Crowdfunding is an alternative instrument to collect money. It does not need the intervention of a bank, but allows to obtain the funds directly from the public by network platforms.

This article focuses on the possibility for a start-up to raise capital through crowdfunding.

The argument is quite known on an international level, even if scholars often focus on specific problems or on particular moments of the life cycle of the start-up. On the contrary, the two arguments are really new in Italy. The Italian crowdfunding market is young – the main increase in the platforms number (+63%) is between 2013 and 2014 – and the national regulation which allows to finance start-ups by crowdfunding is even more recent (latest legal document in 2017).

The novelty of the topic explains the added value of this article. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study focused on the Italian start-ups financed by crowdfunding. We analyze the phenomenon from the birth of the different platforms (2005 for the first one) since the end of the first semester 2018.

Author(s) Details

Marina Damilano
Department of Management, University of Turin, Italy.

Cristina Rovera
Department of Management, University of Turin, Italy.

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Alternative Method of Mitigating Risk on Medium and Large Corporations | Chapter 14 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 4

High operating costs and complexity of risks are impacting negatively on corporations’ profitability despite practicing corporate governance. Corporate governance requires that the management develops frameworks, structures, and guidance to manage enterprise risk. The traditional methods of mitigating risk have relied heavily on insurance as the only mean of protecting enterprise against risks. The traditional methods are now becoming too expensive for corporations and are not able to cover all risk exposures. This problem forms the basis of the research problem in this study. The purpose and objective of this study are to establish alternative methods of mitigating risks in corporations and develop models for computing benefits accruing to the corporations as a result of using the new alternative method. As such, this study identifies financial assets, sinking fund, ploughing back of premiums as possible investments where forgone insurance premiums can be invested and develop a model for computing earnings resulting from such investments. The study applied Actuarial Theory, Financial Theory of Risk Transfer, Modigliani and Miller Theory and Agency Theory, and used both primary and secondary data collected from National Transport and Safety Authority, Kenya and Registrar of Motor vehicles, Kenya target populations, namely number of countries in Europe and North America and the number of insurance companies in Kenya. The study was of significance to the business communities, scholars and researchers, the government and the general public by: (1) providing a better understanding for designing and formulating risk management policy in their organizations, (2) providing mechanism for investing the forgone insurance premium and (3) strengthening knowledge and further research in the area of mitigation. In summary, this study is tenable and a better alternative to ever-increasing insurance premiums.

Author(s) Details

Raude John O. Messo
Department of Business Management, School of Business and Economics, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya.

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Factors Affecting the Surgical Outcome of Primary Exotropia in Children | Chapter 12 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Objective: The objective of current study to evaluate the outcome results of the surgical correction and as well as the effects of some factors on the outcome and surgical response of primary exotropia.

Study Design: Retrospective Clinical Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Hamad Medical Corporation– Tertiary Hospital in Qatar, study done over six months.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent surgical correction of primary exotropia procedures between the years 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients less than 15 years of age were included in the study and the following data were collected: Onset age of squint, age at surgery, type of exotropia, visual acuity, presence of amblyopia, anisometropia, refractive error (spherical equivalent), preoperative deviation, AV pattern, stereopsis, type of surgery and analysis using descriptive statistics, unpaired t- and chi-square statistical tests.

Results: Of 74 patients we studied, 30 Male (40.5%), 44 Female (59.5%), 46 patients (62.2%) had successful surgical outcome and 28 patients (37.8%) had unsuccessful outcome (all under correction). The response to surgery correlated mainly to with the preoperative angle. A higher response resulted from larger preoperative deviation and it this was better with lateral plus medial rectus muscle recessions than with bilateral lateral rectus recession.

Conclusions: Preoperative deviation was the most important factor in determining better response to surgical correction of primary exotropia and accurate measurement of the angle of deviation can improve the outcome and response to surgery.

Author(s) Details

S. Al Mahdi Huda
Department of Ophthalmology, Rumailah Hospital, P.O.Box 3050, Doha, Qatar.

Tajummal Asim
Department of Ophthalmology, Rumailah Hospital, P.O.Box 3050, Doha, Qatar.

Bener Abdulbari
Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34098 Cerrahpasa-Istanbul, Turkey.

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