Alternative Method of Mitigating Risk on Medium and Large Corporations | Chapter 14 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 4

High operating costs and complexity of risks are impacting negatively on corporations’ profitability despite practicing corporate governance. Corporate governance requires that the management develops frameworks, structures, and guidance to manage enterprise risk. The traditional methods of mitigating risk have relied heavily on insurance as the only mean of protecting enterprise against risks. The traditional methods are now becoming too expensive for corporations and are not able to cover all risk exposures. This problem forms the basis of the research problem in this study. The purpose and objective of this study are to establish alternative methods of mitigating risks in corporations and develop models for computing benefits accruing to the corporations as a result of using the new alternative method. As such, this study identifies financial assets, sinking fund, ploughing back of premiums as possible investments where forgone insurance premiums can be invested and develop a model for computing earnings resulting from such investments. The study applied Actuarial Theory, Financial Theory of Risk Transfer, Modigliani and Miller Theory and Agency Theory, and used both primary and secondary data collected from National Transport and Safety Authority, Kenya and Registrar of Motor vehicles, Kenya target populations, namely number of countries in Europe and North America and the number of insurance companies in Kenya. The study was of significance to the business communities, scholars and researchers, the government and the general public by: (1) providing a better understanding for designing and formulating risk management policy in their organizations, (2) providing mechanism for investing the forgone insurance premium and (3) strengthening knowledge and further research in the area of mitigation. In summary, this study is tenable and a better alternative to ever-increasing insurance premiums.

Author(s) Details

Raude John O. Messo
Department of Business Management, School of Business and Economics, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya.

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Factors Affecting the Surgical Outcome of Primary Exotropia in Children | Chapter 12 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Objective: The objective of current study to evaluate the outcome results of the surgical correction and as well as the effects of some factors on the outcome and surgical response of primary exotropia.

Study Design: Retrospective Clinical Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Hamad Medical Corporation– Tertiary Hospital in Qatar, study done over six months.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent surgical correction of primary exotropia procedures between the years 2008 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients less than 15 years of age were included in the study and the following data were collected: Onset age of squint, age at surgery, type of exotropia, visual acuity, presence of amblyopia, anisometropia, refractive error (spherical equivalent), preoperative deviation, AV pattern, stereopsis, type of surgery and analysis using descriptive statistics, unpaired t- and chi-square statistical tests.

Results: Of 74 patients we studied, 30 Male (40.5%), 44 Female (59.5%), 46 patients (62.2%) had successful surgical outcome and 28 patients (37.8%) had unsuccessful outcome (all under correction). The response to surgery correlated mainly to with the preoperative angle. A higher response resulted from larger preoperative deviation and it this was better with lateral plus medial rectus muscle recessions than with bilateral lateral rectus recession.

Conclusions: Preoperative deviation was the most important factor in determining better response to surgical correction of primary exotropia and accurate measurement of the angle of deviation can improve the outcome and response to surgery.

Author(s) Details

S. Al Mahdi Huda
Department of Ophthalmology, Rumailah Hospital, P.O.Box 3050, Doha, Qatar.

Tajummal Asim
Department of Ophthalmology, Rumailah Hospital, P.O.Box 3050, Doha, Qatar.

Bener Abdulbari
Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34098 Cerrahpasa-Istanbul, Turkey.

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Reprocessing Leading to Lower Thermal Conductivity of ZnO Thermoelectrics | Chapter 06 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 2

Nanometer sized ZnO powder was co-doped with gamma aluminum oxide and gallium oxide and sintered using a direct current sintering furnace. Sintered samples were reprocessed by crushing the samples in a Carver press, then milling for 4 hours. The reprocessed samples were then re-sintered in the direct current sintering furnace. Heat capacity, density and thermal diffusivity were measured in order to determine thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. Thermoelectric properties were measured. It was found that the thermal conductivity decreased from 7 W/m K to 3.5 W/m K at 805K by using the reprocessing technique. It is projected that the value will be less than 2 W/m K and the figure of merit greater than 0.65 at 1400K.

Author(s) Details

D. S. Tucker
EM32, Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC, Alabama, USA.

A. O’Connor
School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

C. Romnes
Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Mexico.

C. Hill
EM32, Marshall Space Flight Center, MSFC, Alabama, USA.

X. Zhou
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.

G. Thompson
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.

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Dragon Fruit: The Super Fruit | Book Publisher International

Indian has agriculture supported economy having over increasing population, but heading towards food self sufficiency. One of the ways to boost up farming economy is adaption of high value low input requirement crop having diversified adaptability with various agro-climatic areas of India. The dragon fruit (Hylocereus sp.) is gaining its popularity for immense scope to grow as a commercial high profitable crop due to its rich nutraceutical properties and good for processing industry also. In the context of food diversity farmers are looking for new crops which are remunerative or having good nutraceutical properties and ensure return in short period. Among the new fruit crops, dragon fruit has potential for use to prevent nutrition-related disorders and improve physical and mental well-being of the consumers. Thus, its use is included in herbal medicine in many countries like China. In India, some initiatives have been taken to demonstrate its cultivation in few parts of the country. But, India imports (95 % of its demand) mostly from Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka etc. and fetch high prices in market.

Therefore, it also now is being taught in regular courses in many agricultural institutes. But, there is a gap between the knowledge, availability of literatures and skill for its successful cultivation, production of model nursery etc.

Keeping this view, an attempt has been made to make a complete information guide as book with special references to its Area and production, Nutritional composition and important uses, Origin and distribution, Taxonomy and botanical description, Types and varieties, Soil, Climate, Propagation, Nursery, Transplanting, Trellising, Pruning, Manures and fertilizer application, Irrigation, Intercultural operation, Floral biology, Flowering and Fruiting, Off season production, Harvesting and yield, Post harvest management, Crop improvement, Pest and diseases, Economy of production and Global market importance etc. I hope, it will help the growers, students and researchers as well.

I am indebted to the working groups in this field across the globe for their contribution. I duly acknowledged the literatures, web materials, books, journals etc which are consulted. I also express my deep gratitude to Book Publisher International, for completing this job carefully. I am very grateful to my parents, teachers and colleagues for their encouragement. I am also thankful to my family members for support. I express my heart full thanks to my friends and my dear students who helped me for the entire process. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to my all teachers who prepared me at every level of my education.

Readers are requested for valuable suggestions for the improvement of this publication for its wide acceptability.

Author(s) Details

Sutanu Maji

Department of Applied Plant Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh -226025, India

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/mono/978-93-89562-60-6

Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to Explore Experiences of New Poverty | Chapter 10 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

‘New poverty’, an urban type of poverty mainly affecting the middle class, has increased dramatically over the past five years in Greece following the 2007-2008 economic crisis and the strict austerity measures which were adopted. Focusing on subjective experience and meaning making, this study aims to illuminate how ‘new poverty’ is experienced and given meaning by two individuals living in the wider metropolitan area of Athens. Participants’ accounts were elicited through in-depth, semi-structured interviews and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three overarching themes were identified: the impact of poverty on participants’ lives, the perceived causes of ‘new poverty’ and coping strategies. Participants focused on the all-pervasive nature of poverty and its impact on their physical and psychological well-being. They mainly identified the cause of poverty to be associated with socioeconomic factors, favouring economic/structural explanations. Ways of coping with poverty included receiving financial assistance from parents and engaging in social comparisons. The findings are discussed in relation to extant literature.

Author(s) Details

Lempidaki Maria

Department of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, England.

Kalerante Evaggelia

University of Western Macedonia, Greece.

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Online Purchasing Behavior among Students in Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia | Chapter 09 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

The internet penetration in Malaysia showed rapid growth, and its e-commerce platform such as online shopping is heavily used as it can be accessed 24 hours a day. The outlook on the main factors that influence online purchasing behaviors need to be investigated. This study investigated the factors that affect online purchasing behavior, in particular among university students by using statistical analysis, i.e. factor analysis and descriptive analysis. Study shows three main factors that influence students’ behavior towards online shopping which were attitude towards online shopping, trust, and perceived benefit.

Author(s) Details

Zahayu Md. Yusof

School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia and Institute of Strategic Industrial Decision Science Modeling (ISIDM), School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.

Masnita Misiran

School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.

Massudi Mahmuddin

School of Computing, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.

Nur Ainun Nadhirah Harunar

School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/86/1225/860-1                                              

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/86

Determinants of Performance of Public Primary Schools in Kenya: A Case Study of Gatanga District | Chapter 08 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

Recently, the Kenyan government reaffirmed its commitment to enabling majority of its citizen’s access to education through establishment of free primary education program and subsidizing secondary education. However, despite all these efforts, the education sector continues to face myriads of problems, major one being skewed performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) and Kenya certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) across the many regions of the country. Gatanga district in Central province is one of the many districts witnessing poor performance in KCPE over the last eight years. As such, this study was designed to find out the underlying issues leading to poor performance in KCPE in the district with special focus on all primary schools in the administrative unit. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was primary schools in Kenya and the study population is public primary schools in Gatanga district. A census approach was used to select all the 56 public primary schools. A questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. Data was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The major findings were that Gatanga public primary schools were overwhelmed by the high number of students coming with the introduction of free primary education. Discipline of pupils was found to have minimal influence on KCPE performance while stakeholders’ support was deemed necessary to supplement school administrations’ activities. The study concludes that introduction of free primary education in Kenya has greatly affected teachers’ teaching workload, hence poor performance schools. The study recommended employment of more teachers by the school boards to supplement the government-employed teachers as well as frequent in-service trainings for all teachers.

Author(s) Details

Peter Paul Kithae

Directorate of Research Development and innovations, The Management University of Africa, Kenya.

Roselyn W. Gakure

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.

Patrick Mukuria

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.

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View on Human from Perspective of Information Age Organizations: Necessity of Trained and Developed Human Resource for Sustainability and Competition | Chapter 07 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

As the information age has changed everything in the world, it has also changed organizations in terms of structures, working methods, competitive methods, technologies and strategies. In fact, this is a magical transformation for organizations. The human element of organizations has sometimes been the planner, sometimes the implementer, and sometimes the victim of this change and transformation. In the transformation of information age organizations and in the sustainable competition of the new age, whatever the role, human has continued to be an indispensable organizational resource as before. The only difference according to the human profile of the past period is that it has the characteristics that can fulfill the requirements of the information age and sustain continuous change. This study focuses on the perspective of information age organizations on human. In addition, it tries to discover what features human resources organizations need nowadays. In determining these characteristics, the employee characteristics stated in the job advertisements of hundreds of companies that exhibit information age characteristics were taken into consideration. Organizations that want to survive in the information age have to selection, evaluation, promote, train and improve their human resources from this perspective. Today, it is an important fact that organizations should have employees who can adapt to their transformed structures, working methods, competitive methods, technologies and strategies. It should not be forgotten that human resource is the only creator and applier of knowledge and is the most valuable resource of information age organizations.

Author(s) Details

Metin Atak

National Defense University-Air Vocational School, 35410, İzmir, Turkey.

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Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria: A Dysfunctional Conundrum | Chapter 06 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and a cyclical legitimacy crisis. Consequently, national development is retarded, and the political environment uncertain. The country’s authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically – differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political gladiators constantly manipulated the people and the political processes to advance their own selfish agenda, the society remained pauperized, and the people wallowed in abject poverty. This invariably led to weak legitimacy, as the citizens lacked faith in their political leaders and by extension, the political system. Participation in government was low because citizens perceived it as irrelevant to their lives. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded. Patron – client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, well-functioning political parties, and a credible electoral system. In order to break this cycle and ensure good governance, accountability and transparency must be guaranteed.

Author(s) Details

Omololu Fagbadebo

Department of Public Management and Economics, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa.

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Street Vending and Child Care: Impending Disaster? | Chapter 05 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 1

Children of street vending mothers are exposed to hazardous risks from the vending environment, for example, air pollution, noise pollution, and lack of sanitary resources. However, street vending provides an opportunity for mothers to support the basic needs of their children. Lack of adequate resources and alternative care for children force some mothers to take alongside their children to the street vending business on a daily basis, therefore, compromising their safety and wellbeing. The vending vocation is mostly dominated by women across the world due to modernisation and socio-economic changes (Ntseane, Solo 2007). The author’s previous study in Gaborone provided a background to the issue of women street vendors and the care of children under the age of seven (7) years. The findings revealed that children are vulnerable to various risk factors (Sekgabo, 2006). For these caregivers, provision of quality care means taking the child with them to the business, being certain that the child ate something during the day, that the child is adequately dressed, and ensuring that the child is on the caregiver’s radar during the day. This paper therefore, explores the risks that children whose caregivers take to the street vending business are exposed to and proposes inter-professional interventions for the provision of alternative care for children.

Author(s) Details

Maria Boitumelo Sekgabo

Department of Social Work, University of Botswana, Botswana.

Kgosietsile Maripe

Department of Social Work, University of Botswana, Botswana.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/86/1221/855-1                

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