Research on Containment of Ebola – Steps to Prevent Spread of Emerging Infectious Diseases: The Nigeria Example | Chapter 2 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

Emerging infectious diseases are diseases whose incidence in humans have increased in the past decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The epidemiological and Laboratory techniques needed to detect, investigate and contain a deliberate outbreak are the same as those used for natural outbreaks. The threat to Nigeria posed by the arrival in Lagos of a patient acutely ill with Ebola was potentially enormous. Six response teams were deployed within the Emergency Operations Centre; 1) Epidemiology/ Surveillance, 2) Case Management/ Infection Control, 3) Social mobilization, 4) Laboratory Services, 5) Point of Entry and 6) Management / Coordination. The strategy group reviewed and approved all of the teams work and needed resources. Eleven patients with laboratory confirmed Ebola were admitted and discharged, an additional patient was diagnosed at convalescent stage while eight patients died. 

Author(s) Details


Dr. Y. J. Peter
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

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Detailed Study on Pattern of Cancer Pain in Patients Admitted at a Tertiary Care Centre in Northern India- A Prospective Observational Study | Chapter 1 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

Aims: Pain being the commonest symptom in cancer, its prevalence and pattern needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of cancer pain in admitted patients. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Cancer Research Institute, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Dehradun, India, between January 2018 and April 2018. Methodology: After institutional ethical clearance and written informed consent 393 patients were enrolled in the study. We prospectively evaluated patients admitted with diagnosis of cancer for presence, severity and pattern of pain, using clinical assessment and numerical pain scale at admission and at discharge. Chi-square test was used for categorical data and multivariate analysis was performed with multinominal regression and ANNOVA tests. Results: In 393 patients prevalence of pain, moderate-severe pain, neuropathic pain (NPP), mixed pain was 67%, 47.8%, 10.2% and 31.9% respectively. More than one pain site was present in 43% of patients. The median numerical pain score was 2 overall, 4 in patients with pain and 7 in patients with NPP or mixed pain. Prevalence of severe pain and NPP or mixed pain was highest in hepatobilliary, lung, head and neck and genitourinary cancers. As many as 42.97% (113/263) patients had more than one pain site. On multivariate analysis severity of pain was significantly associated with primary tumor site (P=0.002), NPP (P=0.000), number of metastatic sites (P=0.02) and number of pain sites (P=0.009); NPP with primary tumor site (P=0.000), number of pain sites (P=0.000) and severity of pain (P=0.014). The proportion of patients with moderate-severe pain reduced from 47.8% before admission to 10.7% at discharge with adequate analgesic management. Conclusion: The prevalence of cancer pain and moderate-severe pain is high in admitted patients. Various patient, disease and pain variables need to be considered for an adequate cancer pain assessment and management. Team approach with active participation of primary medical team, adjunct support from palliative care specialist is desirable for cancer pain management.

Author (s) Details

Anshika Arora,
Department of Surgery, Cancer Research Institute, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, SRHU, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

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Dental Treatment of a Child with Pallister-Killian Syndrome: Critical Research |Chapter 10 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

The Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder with an incidence estimated around 1/25000 and a multiple congenital anomaly deficit syndrome caused by mosaic tissue limited tetrasomy for chromosome 12p. The presented report is the first confirmed case with PKS in Turkey. This report focuses on the orofacial clinical manifestations of an 6-year-old boy with PKS who was referred to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry clinic, Gazi University. It has been learned that the PKS was diagnosed 1 year after birth. Due to intellectual disability, it was decided to make the dental treatments under moderate sedation. Although significant tongue thrust and anterior open bite were determined, any oral appliances could not be applied because of the 2 epilepsy seizures in the last 2 years. The aim was to treat decayed teeth and set good oral hygiene in the patient’s mouth. Still, there is a probability for epilepsy seizures. If epileptic seizures stop permanently, we can apply an oral appliance to block tongue thrust. The patient is now under control. In cases of systemic and oral findings such as PKS, conducting medical and dental approaches together will increase the life quality of patients. Author(s) Details

Serhan Didinen
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey.


Didem Atabek
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Turkey.


Dr. Gülay Kip

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Turkey and Department of Anesthesia and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Turkey


Asli Patir Münevveroglu
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey.

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The Prospect of Catastrophe Securitization in China: Recent Developments | Chapter 12 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

The purpose of this paper is to prospect catastrophe securitization in China. The catastrophe security market is well developed in developed countries, but in much of Asia it is in its early stages. The reason attributed for this is the close interdependencies of corporates and insurance companies in funding their risk exposures and the lower prevalence of sophisticated risk management practices. However, things slowly started changing in Asia, especially in China, with corporate recognizing that better risk management practices have a positive affect on their financial earnings. The securitization of catastrophe risk has the potential to rapidly alter the China’s risk management landscape. Through development of the catastrophe security markets, policyholders can be protected from (re)insurer’s credit risk, (re)insurers can overcome the limitation of capacity, and investors investing capital markets can diversify their portfolios. The growth and survival of the catastrophe security market in China lies in coming up with the products to suit the diverse needs of various customers and act as a close substitute for the traditional insurance market

Author(s) Details

Jong-Hag Jang

School of Economics and Management, Chang’an University, South 2nd Rd, Xi’an 710064, China.

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Crop by-products and Residues Availability and Utilization as Feed Resources for Small Ruminant Production Systems in Khana Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria | Chapter 11 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

In Nigeria the most difficult problem in ruminant feeding is the scarcity of energy and protein feedstuffs during the dry season. There is also competition between ruminant species with humans for the utilization of cereals. This can be resolved by utilizing crop or agricultural by-products to ameliorate feed deficit problems. This article reviewed the state of availability and utilization of crop by-products as livestock feeds for small ruminants in Khana Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. It was revealed that the predominant crop by-products in order of availability and utilization as livestock feeds were cassava peels, yam peels, sweet potato peels, plantain peels, banana peels, cocoyam peels, maize sievate and fried garrisievate. Their use is highly recommended because of their ready availability, cheapness and acceptability that can help to solve the problems of food deficits for small ruminants in the area. Factors that will limit their use are: availability in terms of time, location, seasonality and storage, high cost of their handling and transportation from the production site to the farm, their high moisture contents that causes storage problems, mould growth such as aflatoxin which may cause toxicity and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Despite these shortcomings they can be seen as possible options to solve the problems of feed scarcity in traditional sheep and goat farming systems.

Author(s) Details

G. A. Kalio
Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Dr B. B. Okafor
Department of Agricultural Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Ndele Campus, P.M.B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Financial Analysis as a Consideration for Stock Exchange Investment Decisions in Tanzania: Recent Trends | Chapter 10 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol. 4

Stock exchange investment in Tanzania is growing fast, and many people of different varieties of income are participating in the purchase of shares commonly known as stock exchange. However, there is seemingly little concern on the use of financial analysis on the part of local individual investors when purchasing the shares. Hence, this chapter presents the findings of the study on financial analysis as a consideration for stock exchange investment decision making in Tanzania. The study was originally conducted for four months from July to October 2006. Perhaps it is true that knowledge is vital in all essence, hence we have amalgamated some resent knowledges to make our book more current and understandable. As it is indicated that this chapter is a study which incorporates six brokers, indeed yes but the current situation has seen an increase of brokers to 13. In that regard, we have talked to them in order to amplify this study, and all have cemented the earlier study, and had few new comments. It adopted a survey study incorporating all thirteen registered brokers in Tanzania located in Dar es Salaam. First, the introduction was given, which provided the essentials and the need for financial statements analysis as far as decisions regarding investment is concerned, after which the literature review was done. This was followed by a presentation of the role of Dares salaam stock exchange. Subsequently, the methodology of the study was given, followed by data analysis and discussion of findings. Finally, conclusions and recommendations were given. The chapter concludes that most of investors in Tanzania do not depend on the financial statements analysis of the firms when investing mainly because most of these investors have not acquired knowledge on the importance of financial statements in making decisions regarding the investment. However, big investors such as financial institutions and firms do consider financial statement analysis when investing. This calls for the people and education institution to verge the training of the students on how it is worthy understanding the use of financial information. This should e done through education provided by the people who work with Dar es salaam Stock Exchange and the affiliated institutions. Colleges must understand that purchasing of stocks and affiliated ventures are worthy and should not be considered as a mere business, it is a real business.

Author (s) Details

Norman A. S King
Department of Business Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Iringa, Tanzania.

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Farmers’ Perception towards Sugarcane Technologies of Farm University in Karnataka, India | Chapter 9 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

The Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, has been carrying out the research on major crops like Rice (Oriza sativa L.)., Finger millet                           (Eleusine coracana)., Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)., Maize (Zea mays L.) etc., considering the agro-climatic, location specific and need based demands of the farmers since its inception 1930s, many good agricultural practices were developed and they were transferred to farmers. There was need to evaluate the performance of these technologies in farmers’ field from time to time. One such technology selected for the study is, the sugarcane variety CO-86032 which was released during 2003-04 and it was compared with the local prevailing check variety CO-62175. An Ex-post-facto survey type of research design was adopted. The research objectives of the study are to find out the perception of farmers regarding performance of these farm technologies on their field regarding cane yield, income generated out of it and to find out association between cane yields and social factors affecting it. The study was conducted in Mandya, Maddur and Srirangapatna taluks of Mandya district, Karnataka state during 2009-10 and was retested in 2016 on pilot sample to ascertain the impact and performance of technologies among the farmers. The sample size was 270 and the respondents were selected randomly and purposively from afore said taluks of Mandya district. The data were collected from the respondents by administering pre-tested, structured interview schedule. The nominal data were analyzed using Chi square test to draw the inferences. The study found that the local variety CO- 62175 yielded 3.73 ton/ac cane yield more than that of CO- 86032. Majority of the respondents had harvested the cane yield ranging from 51 to 55 ton/ac, from CO-62175 and 56 to 60 ton/ac from CO-62175. Similar cane yield trend was observed in all the three taluks of Mandya district for both the varieties. Regarding jaggery recovery, the respondents obtained 120 kg of jaggery per ton of cane crushed from CO-86032 compared to  95kg from  variety CO-62175, around 25 kg additional jaggery was recovered by crushing one ton cane from CO-86032. The perceived reason of respondents was more quality jiggery recovery from crushing the cane and they were willing to adopt the CO-86032 than that of CO-62175 variety. In case of finding out the association between the cane yield and the social variables; family size, land holding and education level of respondents found to have no significant association. It implies that all the 3 independent social variables had no influence on cane yield including the education level. The literacy had not played a key role in enhancing the crop yields. Both illiterate and literate respondents had obtained same crop yield without much difference. The implications of the findings are, though the cane yield of CO-86032  is relatively less compared to CO62175, majority of the farmers were willing go for continued adoption of it, as it had multiple advantages, such as, high sugar content, pleasant color of consumer preference, better market price etc. Thus it should be promoted in large area in the Mandya and adjoining districts of Karnataka where similar agro climatic conditions exists. Further, there is a need to evolve high yielding varieties retaining the some of its beneficial attributes of CO-86032. The station has released other high yielding varieties which have higher tonnage and sugar recovery, which is beneficial to the both Sugar factory and to the farmers, the former get more quantity of sugar and the latter get more price and profit for more weightage. As of now, the growers have been preferring these verities and has occupied large area in the irrigated command areas.

Author(s) Details

D. Raghupathi
Department of Agriculture Extension, College of Agriculture, VC Farm, Mandya, Karnataka State, India. 

M. Venkatesha
Department of Horticulture, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, VC Farm, Mandya, Karnataka State, India.

M. N. Venkataramana
Department of Agricultural Economics, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka State, India.

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An Assessment of Tax Morale among Mauritian Taxpayers: Advanced Study | Chapter 8 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

Taxation has gained considerable attention in the past few year and lot of studies have been done on tax evasion and tax compliance. This study assesses the level of tax and identifies factors that shape tax morale in Mauritius. A self-developed questionnaire was distributed to 250 randomly respondents and a logistic regression analysis was used to analyse data collected. A high degree of tax morale is required to achieve high level of tax compliance. The result shows that socio -demographic and socio economic factors have an impact on tax morale and it can be seen that social norm, fairness and equity, trust in government and in tax authority are determinants that shape tax morale. The findings are in line with that some authors who found out that that there is a positive correlation between inequity and tax evasion. The study recommended that population should be educated, tax system should be simplified, government should be fair and tax authority should respect the population. 

Author(s) Details

Dr. B. Jugurnath 
Department of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Law and Management, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius.

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A Novel View on Collective Actions and Dynamic Capabilities in Competitive Advantage: Empirical Examination of Minor Export Crop Farms in Sri Lanka | Chapter 7 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

Aims: Agribusiness sector is facing several challenges due to a rapid weather and technological changes. This is urged a collective approach. Literature has acknowledged that agribusiness farms which engage in collective actions generate greater value-add and enhance socio-economic contributions of a country. However, its relative importance along with the dynamic capabilities possessed by farms and subsequently competitive advantage has received very little research attention. Theoretically, this study examines the resource-based view in combination with the dynamic capability theories. Study Design: Specifically, the minor export crop farm owners involved in the commercial cultivation of cinnamon, pepper and clove in Sri Lanka were surveyed using a personally-administered, structured questionnaire.  Results: The results of regression-based path analysis indicate a significant relationship between collective actions and competitive advantage, as well as between collective actions and dynamic capabilities.   Conclusion: The study has extended our understanding of the importance of collective actions for the minor export crop farm owners. Research and managerial implications are provided together with future research directions. 

Author(s) Details

Vilani Sachitra
Department of Commerce, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

Siong-Choy Chong
Finance Accreditation Agency, Malaysia.

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Economic Growth and Environmental Pollution in Brunei: ARDL Bounds Testing Approach to Cointegration: A New Perspective | Chapter 6 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol. 4

Aims: This study examined the short-run and long-run dynamic relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution in Brunei. We adopted Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model to scrutinize the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) among the studying variables by using time series data cover the period of 1974 to 2014.  Methodology: The ARDL bound test revealed the existence of a long-run relationship among the integrated variables when CO2 chosen as a dependent variable. Results: The results support the existences of EKC hypotheses in the long-run whereas in the shortrun an inverted U-shaped curve was not confirmed between GDP and CO2 in Brunei. The results of Granger causality based on VECM analysis have shown unidirectional causality runs from economic growth to CO2 in the short-run. Further analysis through stability test indicates the coefficients in the model are stable and do not suffer from structural break within the time taken in the study. Conclusion: Bruneian government should continue to support global environmental preservation policies to reduce the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere, applying a modern technology that is not harming to the environment and consumes less energy to mitigate the adverse impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the country.

Author(s) Details

Issa Moh’d Hemed 
Zanzibar University (ZU), P.O.Box 2440, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

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