Phytochemicals and Acute Toxicity of Moringa oleifera Roots in Mice | Chapter 08 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 3

The phytochemicals used by plants to protect themselves against predators in Moringa oleifera roots were qualitatively identified in the aqueous and ethanol extracts. Its acute toxicity in 24 h was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. M. oleifera, a native plant of the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan is used in folk medicine. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal, socio-economic and industrial values. Many individuals and families consume the roots for their medicinal properties. Despite wide use the roots, the phytochemicals and toxicity profile are not well documented. This study set out to determine the phytochemicals and acute toxicity of M. oleifera roots in mice. The roots were harvested during dry season and air dried. Serial extractions using ether, ethanol and water were done. The harvested phytochemicals were qualitatively identified using standard chemicals procedures. The phytochemicals identified were: Gallic tannins, catechol tennins, steroids and triterponoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity was determined by giving a single oral dose to Swiss albino mice and observed for 24 h. The LD50 was calculated using the probit tables. The LD50 of ethanol extract was 17.8 g/kg and that of aqueous extract was 15.9 g/kg. In conclusion, M. oleifera roots contain protective phytochemicals and are relatively non-toxic when given in a single dose.

Author(s) Details

J. N. Kasolo
Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makererere University, P.O.Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

L. Ojok
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makererere University, Kampala, Uganda.

W. Ogwal-Okeng
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makererere University, Kampala, Uganda.

G. S. Bimenya
Department of Pathology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makererere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Evaluation of Toxicity on Mice and Artemicidal Activity of Bauhinia monandra Leaf Lectin (BmoLL) | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

Aims: This work aimed to determine the toxicity of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) to mice and Artemia salina.

Study design: BmoLL was purified from the leaves of B. monandra through affinity chromatography and tested against mice and A. salina in order to evaluate its toxicity.

Methodology: The lectin purification was performed through saline precipitation and chromatography onto a guar gel column. The acute toxicity of BmoLL was evaluated using female mice during 14 days. Toxicity of BmoLL to A. salina larvae was also evaluated.

Results: BmoLL did not induce death or weight loss of mice at 2000 mg/kg b.w.; additionally, the lectin did not affect the survival of A. salina at the assayed concentrations (250–1,000 µg/mL).

Conclusion: BmoLL is an interesting molecule to investigate pharmacological applications due to its low toxicity according to the two models used in this work.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Chrisjacele Santos Ferreira de Araújo
Departamento de Enfermagem, Faculdade dos Palmares – FAP, Palmares, Pernambuco, CEP 55540-000, Brazil.

Dr. Tiago Ferreira da Silva Araújo
Colegiado de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco – UNIVASF, Petrolina, Pernambuco, CEP 56304-917, Brazil.

Dr. Cleideana Bezerra da Silva
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Janaina Karin de Lima Campos
Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Caruaru, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-901, Brazil.

Dr. Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Thiago Henrique Napoleão
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Priscilla Barbosa Sales de Albuquerque
Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco – UPE, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, CEP 55295-110, Brazil..

Prof. Vera L. Menezes Lima
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Dr. Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica – CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – UFPE, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

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