The Relationship between Stunting and Some Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors among Yemeni Children and Adolescents | Chapter 6 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sex, residence area, age group, school enrollment, poverty status and income quintiles variables on the prevalence of stunting among Yemeni children and adolescents. The investigation was done on all children and adolescents (3004) aged 5-19 years that included in the last Yemeni household Budget Survey (YHBS) data of 2005/2006. The data included a classification to the poverty status of surveyed households. The cutoff of -2 z scores of the height-for-age reference suggested by NCHS, was used to calculate the prevalence rate of stunting. Descriptive, categorical testing, logit modelling statistical analysis tools were used in the investigation. The statistical analysis shows the overall prevalence rate of stunting as 49.5% and the prevalence of stunting among males is higher than females. The prevalence of stunting among rural children and adolescents is higher than the urban children and adolescents and among children and adolescents who were not enrolled is higher than those enrolled. Children and adolescents of poor households were suffering from stunting (52.8%) as comparing to children and adolescents of non-poor households (47.7%). Children and adolescents living with the poorest, second and middle-income households were 1.76, 1.73 and 1.46 times more likely to be stunted respectively. The research provides an evidence that the childhood health situation in Yemen is chaotic and needs careful and effective cooperation and efforts both nationally and internationally to divert the foreseen danger looming.

Author(s) Details

Muhammed A. K. Al-Mansoob

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sana’a University, P.O. Box 12092, Yemen

Muhammed S. A. Masood

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education and Language, Amran University, Yemen. View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/148

Self Esteem among Adolescents in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Neglected Issue | Chapter 06 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Background: Self esteem among adolescents is a neglected issue in pediatrics, especially in this part of the world. Females ages fourteen to seventeen seemed to have positive self-esteem and so do the males but self esteem is low at middle ages. Females tend to have a low self esteem than males.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of self esteem among adolescents and associated factors.

Methods: The study was carried out among adolescents attending secondary schools from two cities; (Enugu and Abakiliki located in south eastern part of Nigeria) within age range of 10-19 yr. A structured self administered questionnaire developed from self esteem scores was used for data collection.

Pearson’s chi-square was used to test for relationship between categorical variables while student t- test was used to test significant relationship between continuous variables. Test of significance was set at p<0.5.

Results: The self esteem questionnaire used was classified into two major questions with several sub questions. The first group is about self confidence, self fulfillment and self worth and confidence, the second group include depression, hopelessness, loneliness, and suicidal thoughts. We enrolled 507 adolescents in this study. The mean age of all participants was 16.3 (1.2) yr. Total mean self esteem score for all respondents is 15.77±2.769. Low self esteem was observed in 3.6% of the respondents with 4.3% of females and 2.5% of Males. Low self esteem is mostly seen in older adolescents aged 18-19 (44%) and rare among (adolescents less than 11 yr (0%). Low self esteem was more common among the female respondents in all the age ranges.

Conclusion: Self esteem is high among adolescents, though this is may be overemphasized as more research is needed in this area.

Author(s) Details

Josephat M. Chinawa
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku- Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Herbert A. Obu
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku- Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Pius C. Manyike
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Ikechukwu E. Obi
Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Odetunde O. Isreal
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku- Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Awoere Tamunosiki Chinawa
Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/139

Prevalence of Psychosomatic Symptoms among Traumatized Palestinian Adolescents in the Gaza Strip | Chapter 01 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

Aims: To estimate the prevalence of psychosomatic symptoms among traumatized Palestinian adolescents in Gaza Strip. 

Methods: The study sample consisted of 380 adolescents randomly selected from secondary schools in Gaza Strip, of whom 171 were boys and 209 were girls between 15-18 years. Data was collected using a socio-demographic checklist, the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, and the Psychosomatic Symptoms Scale. For statistical analysis, questionnaire data was normally distributed, for this reason independent t-test was used to investigate differences between two groups. Associations between continuous variables were measured by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. One-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey was used to investigate differences between more than two groups.

Results: The most common reported traumatic events due to the war on Gaza were: watching mutilated bodies and wounded people in TV (92.3%), and hearing shelling of the area by artillery (89.4%). The mean number of traumatic events experienced by Palestinian adolescents was 14. Boys reported significantly more traumatic events than girls. Adolescents from family with monthly income less than 150 US $ experienced more traumatic events than the other groups. Mean psychosomatic symptoms was 48.19, digestive system symptoms was 19.97, cardiovascular symptoms was 10.23,  respiratory system symptoms was 3.82, urogenital system symptoms was 2.98,  skeletal musculature symptoms was 5.29, and skin symptoms was 7.34. Boys scored more in total psychosomatic and skin symptoms. There was a significant relationship between traumatic experiences and psychosomatic symptoms.

Conclusion: Palestinian adolescents experienced significant traumatic events due to the war on Gaza Strip which were significantly associated with developing psychosomatic symptoms. Such findings highlight the urgent need for establishing community mental health school based programs to help adolescents with such symptoms and increase awareness about their nature and management. Also there is need for conducting training courses for teachers and school counsellors to increase their knowledge about general mental health problems in schools and ways of dealing with such problems. Also, training courses for primary care and hospital physicians, who might attribute to physical causes, and liaison between physical and mental health services.

Author(s) Details

Thabet Abdelaziz
School of Public Health, Community Mental Health Department and Child Institute, Al Quds University, Palestine.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/62/706/570-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/pass/v2