Efficiency of Sawdust from Selected African Indigenous Wood spp. as a Low-cost Adsorbent for Removal of Copper Ion from Contaminated Water: Advanced Study | Chapter 5 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol. 1

Aims: This study investigates the use of sawdust from 3 hardwood species as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of copper from contaminated water.  Study Design: The experimental design used for this study was 3 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment; the different sawdust species, two baselines (treated and untreated) and four levels of pH and time as factors were combined and used for the study. Methodology: Test was carried out to investigate the effect of sawdust pre-treatment on their adsorption capacity in the removal of Copper ions from contaminated water at different pH levels; the sawdust samples were sieved through a screen size of 850 μm after which a portion of each species sawdust was subjected to pre-treatment by boiling while the other portions were maintained as control samples (untreated). Results: The results shows that adsorption capacity for both treated and untreated samples were 69.75±13.78%,  68.60±19.48%, 69.34±23.08%, 74.79±17.79%, 74.52±22.30% and 76.90±18.21% for  Alstonia boonei, Erythrophleum suaveolens  and Ficus mucuso  respectively. Conclusion: The contact time and pH showed no significant difference between the treated and untreated samples. Sawdusts from the selected wood species are suitable to be used as adsorbent towards the removal of copper from contaminated water.

Author(s) Details

E. A. Iyiola 
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria and School of Forestry, University of Cantebury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

J. M. Owoyemi
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria and School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

T. P. Saliu
Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Nigeria.

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Thermal Stabilization of HEWL by Adsorption on Biochar | Chapter 11 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 2

The heat stress tolerance of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was markedly enhanced by the adsorption of HEWL on bamboo charcoal powder (BCP), which is a kind of biochar. HEWL was firmly adsorbed on BCP even at high temperatures. The secondary structure of HEWL was altered to some extent by the adsorption of HEWL on BCP. The remaining activity of BCP-adsorbed HEWL exhibited more than 20% after the incubation for 30 min at 90°C although that of free one was hardly observed. Moreover, the half-life of BCP-adsorbed HEWL was 13 min at 90°C while that of free one was 4 min.

Author(s) Details

Hidetaka Noritomi
Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, 192-0397, Japan.

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Effect of Solvent on Catalysis of Protease Adsorbed on Biochar in Organic Media | Chapter 10 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 2

The adsorption immobilization of the serine protease α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) onto bamboo charcoal powder (BCP), which is a kind of biochar, improved the transesterification rate of N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (N-Ac-Tyr-OEt) with n-butanol (BuOH) in 9 organic solvents. Organic solvents strongly affected the catalysis of BCP-adsorbed α-CT. The transesterification rate of BCP-adsorbed α-CT was much superior to that of free α-CT in every organic solvent. Especially, the transesterification rate of BCP-adsorbed α-CT was about 760 times higher than that of free α-CT in n-butyl acetate.

Author(s) Details

Hidetaka Noritomi
Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, 192-0397, Japan.

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Montmorillonite-silica Nanocomposite for Dye Removal from Solution | Chapter 01 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 3

Dyes  are  used  in  various  industries  such  as  pharmaceutical,  cosmetic,  paper,  leather,  food  stuff, plastics, and textile etc. The dye effluents are discharged into environment by either water or land. The discharge of these effluents into the receiving environments results in hazardous health problems as most of these dyes have carcinogenic effects on the living organisms. Congo red was removed on Montmorillonite-silica nanocomposite from solution by adsorption process. The adsorption parameters studied  were adsorbent  dose,  initial  concentration  and  contact  time.  The  optimum  adsorption parameters were found to be 2 mg/L, 1.5 g and 40 minutes for initial concentration, adsorbent dose and  contact  time  respectively  with  removal  percentage  of  84.10%.  Pseudo  first and  second  order kinetics were used for the studies. Pseudo second order best fit the adsorption process with R²= 1 than the Pseudo first order which has R²= 0.933. Experimental data were best fitted by the Langmuir Isotherm  with  R²=0.9024  other  than  the  Freundlich  Isotherm,  R²=0.568.  The  RL  of  0.994  of  the Langmuir  isotherm  shows  the  favourability  of  the  adsorption  process.  The  maximum  adsorption capacity by Langmuir isotherm was found to be 172. 40 mg/g. The adsorption process of Congo red was  carried  out  using  Montmorilonite  silica  nanocomposite.  From  the  experimental  data  the percentage removal of 84.10% obtained at an optimum initial concentration of 2 mg/l, an optimum adsorbent dose of 1.5 g and optimum contact time of 40 minutes. Experimental data were best fitted by the Langmuir Isotherm with R²=0.9024 other than the Freudlich Isotherm, R²=0.568. The pseudo second order kinetic with R²= 1 best fit the adsorption process other than the pseudo second order kinetics,  R²=0.933. Therefore, montmorillonite-silica  nanocomposite  obtained  from montmorillonite clay and Rice husk ash can serve as a cost-effective adsorbent in the removal of Congo red dye.

Author(s) Details

Dr Danbature Wilson Lamayi

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

Zaccheus Shehu

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gombe State University, Gombe, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aast/v3