Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Current State in People with HIV-AIDS in Peru | Chapter 11 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 3

Purpose: To describe the incidence and progression of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in public hospital patients from Peru.

Study Design: Prospective study conducted in HIV-AIDS diagnosed patients.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology and Department of Tropical Medicine, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, from 2004 to 2013.

Methodology: Descriptive statistics were obtained for age, gender, associated disease, CMVR location and ganciclovir treatment. Data were analyzed by the Pearson Chi. Square test, Mann-Whitney test, and the two-tailed exact Fischer’s Exact test. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows software program was used

Results: 2627 patients were evaluated, 75 had CMVR diagnosis. Active CMVR was found in 68 eyes (90.7%). Median age at diagnosis of CMVR was 37 years (IQR 30-41 years). Median CD4 level of 25 cells/μL (IQR 12.2-57.7 cells/μL), viral load > 1000,000 in 39 (52%) patients. Median mortality  rate was 7.1 deaths per 1000 PY and mean survival time from HIV diagnosis to death was 29,5 months (95%  8,7-43,0 months) and from CMVR diagnosis, 6,2 months (95%  IC 2,0-8,0 months). Duration since HIV diagnosis to CMVR onset was 12 months (IQR 3-48 months). Tuberculosis (TB) was present in 23 (30.7%) patients. Incidence rate of HIV patients with CMVR was 28.2 cases per 1000 PY. 51 patients received ganciclovir: endovenous 34 (91.17%), intravitreal 6 (26.5%) and orally 4 (11.8%).

Conclusion: CMVR has a high prevalence in young people with an elevated value of HIV-TB co-infection (30.7%). CMVR diagnosis was a predictor for early mortality, including highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Author(s) Details

Bety Yáñez
Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru.

View Books: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/112

Use of Condom and Knowledge of Own HIV Status among Undergraduates of Ten Tertiary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Southwest, Nigeria | Chapter 16 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Bearing a burden of 66.7% of all global cases, HIV infection has become a major health challenge in Africa in general and sub-Sahara Africa in particular. For this reason, the battle to halt HIV/AIDS’ spread in Africa, particularly in Nigeria is being fought on different fronts, carefully considering all factors that can help bring down prevalence rate and curb the spread of the disease. Two of such fronts are advocacies for the consistent and right use of a condom, as well as voluntary testing to know own HIV status. In this study, 100 undergraduates each were sampled consecutively from ten tertiary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States of Nigeria, so as to evaluate the level of use of condom and knowledge of own HIV status among this group of youths and young adults. The study was conducted through the use of self-administered questionnaires among the enrolled undergraduates. The 1000 subjects comprised 421(42.1%) males and 57.1 (57.1%) females, while 8 (0.8%) did not disclose their gender. Five hundred and twenty-one (52.1%) of the subjects fell within the 21-30 age-bracket, 407 (40.7%) were 20years and below, 22 (2.2%) were within the 31-40 age-bracket, while 12(1.2%) were 40years and above. Thirty-eight (3.8%) did not disclose their age-bracket. Two hundred and four (20.4%) of the subjects always used condom, 169 (16.9%) used it occasionally, 139 (13.9%) never used during sexual intercourse, 403(40.3%) indicated that the use of condom wasn’t applicable to them (this group was presumed to be sexually inactive/inert), while 85 (8.5%) didn’t volunteer information about their sexual activity. Findings also revealed that majority, 564(56.4%) of the subjects did not know their HIV status, 51(5.1%) were indifferent about their HIV status, 25 (2.5%) did not disclose if they knew their HIV status or not. However, 360 (36%) knew their HIV status. With more than half of the study population not knowing their HIV status, it is therefore suggested that health policy-makers should scale-up advocacy activities to persuade the general populace in Nigeria to go for voluntary testing.

Author(s) Details

Dr. G. O. Daramola
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Dr. H. A. Edogun
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

A. O. Ojerinde  B.MLS, M.Sc
University Health Centre, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

A. A. Agbaje
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

O. O. Ogunfolakan
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

O. O. Ajala
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

A. Egbebi
College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

E. F. Akerele
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

View Book: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/107