Knowledge and Awareness of Anthrax among the Community People at High, Medium and Low Risk Areas of Bangladesh | Chapter 04 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess information about the awareness, attitudes and management practice towards Anthrax. Administrative areas of Bangladesh had been classified as high, medium, and low risk anthrax areas by assessing the risk of anthrax from reports published in daily newspapers and journals. The selected high, medium and low risk areas were Kushtia, Pabna and Mymensingh, respectively. The animal owners and family members, butchers, affected people by cutaneous anthrax were considered as the key informants. Data of management practice including feeding, awareness of zoonosis; vaccination and formal education were collected using interview-questionnaire method. A total data of 622 was collected and uploaded to the data collection tools “Magpi” and the data analysis was carried out using Epi Info™. We found a great worry about educational status in our study sites. Among the interviewers, we found about Half of people had no formal education (46.46%, 289/622). Farmers in the high risk districts significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from medium-(p=0.000) and low-(p=0.000) risk districts. Knowledge of zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination of Anthrax were also very poor among the people from low and medium risk areas. For treatment purpose, most of the farmers (about 98%) of high and low risk areas depend on village doctors. We also found that Improper washing of grass-(p=0.000) and flood-(p=0.000) were significantly responsible for Anthrax outbreaks. Finally we suggest, proper washing of grass, increase awareness towards zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination, proper treatment by veterinarian should be insured to reduce Anthrax outbreak in Bangladesh.

Author(s) Details

K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

Md. Ariful Islam
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

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Forensic Investigation of Bioterror Attack from Crime Scene to Court: A Review | Chapter 08 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

The detrimental effect of crimes cost our society valuable resources including loss of lives in extreme cases. Unfortunately, the rate and manner in which crimes are committed now is becoming more sophisticated especially with the use of biological agents. Bioterrorism have potentials to cause havoc to humanity just like other sources such as nuclear weapons. One of such cases is the recent anthrax attack in USA 2001; a bioterror attack that had lead to the development of a new field of microbial forensics. In addition, they have forensic profiles that can aid in their identification. However, cases involving them rarely appeared in court. Deliberate release of microbes or their toxins to harm or kill an individual in a community, deliberate transmission from infected person to another and /or through food as well as medical negligence have been identified as ways in which bio crimes are committed. Morphological characteristics, genomic and bioinformatics are the possible ways of identifying biological threats involved in a crime. Collaboration among forensic scientists, public health workers and law enforcement agencies is said to be crucial in investigating biological attack. Controlling the crime scene, maintaining chain of custody, validating methods, proficiency testing and defendable interpretation of results will need to be performed to very high standards to ensure admissibility of results in court. More research, training and development of module(s) in this area to be taught as part of the requirement for the award of degrees in forensic science are suggested.

Author(s) Details

D. P. Ashefo
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B 109 Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

H. Tanimu
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Nasarawa State Polytechnic, P.M.B 109 Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

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