Rhamnus prinoides – A Basotho Medicinal Plant with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential |Chapter 11 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Rhamnus prinoides finds therapeutic applications in traditional medicine in Southern Africa, which include treating pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, gonorrhoea, muscular rheumatism, cleaning the blood, bladder and kidneys. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts from leaves and stem-bark of R. prinoides have been evaluated for their antioxidant activity by 1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The percentage values of radical of scavenging activity of these extracts have been found to be in the range of 03.33±0.89 to 59.55±2.27% at various concentrations. The IC50 values of these extracts have been determined to be in the range of 710.50 to >3000 µg mL-1. The positive control, ascorbic acid, showed an IC50 value of <200 µg mL-1. Additionally, all these extracts have also been evaluated for their inhibitory effect against six bacterial isolates viz. Escherichia coli (wild), Escherichia coli (H0157), Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogens, Pseudomonas spp. and Serratia marcescens and two fungal isolates viz. Penicillium digitatum and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition have been found to be in the range of 8.8±3.0 to 15.8±1.4 mm diameter against bacterial isolates and 10.3±1.8 to 14.3±2.5 mm diameter against fungal isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these extracts have been found to be in the range of <31.25 to > 1000 µg/mL. Further studies on this plant will be useful to commercialize products from this plant.

Author(s) Details
Dr. Manoharan Karuppiah Pillai
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho

Dr. Sibusisiwe Magama
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho.

Ms. Lehlohonolo Isaac Santi
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Roma Campus, P.O. Roma 180, Kingdom of Lesotho.

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Antibacterial Activity of Mulinum spinosum Extracts against Slime-producing Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Nasal Carriers: An Overview | Chapter 6 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are important reservoirs with risk of developing endogenous infections or transmitting infections to susceptible individuals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are associated with higher rates of treatment failure. Some strains of S. aureus produce slime which is believed to make the microorganisms more resistant to antibiotics and host defenses. The antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate: n-hexane (EtOAc:HEX) extracts of Mulinum spinosum (5:95% EtOAc:HEX, 50:50% EtOAc:HEX, 70:30% EtOAc:HEX and  mix 20:80/30:70% EtOAc:HEX, 50:50/70:30/100:0% EtOAc:HEX) were assayed against 3 slime-producing S. aureus strains and 2 MRSA strains isolated from nasal carriers. S.aureus ATCC 35556 slime-producing strain and MRSA ATCC 43300 strain were used as controls. The extracts were prepared using flash chromatography. M. spinosum 5:95% AcOEt:HEX showed antibacterial effect against all slime-producing strains (MIC:500 µg/ml) and the highest activity against MRSA strains (MIC:500 to 1000 µg/ml). All M.spinosum extracts assayed were active against slime-producing S. aureus and MRSA at doses between 500 and 4000 µg/ml. Both, slime-producing S. aureus and MRSA are highly contagious and hardly eradicated by antibiotic therapies. So, there is an increasing need to find new substances with the ability to inhibit these strains
 
Author(s) Details 

Echenique Daniela
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina.

Chiaramello Alejandra
Department of Chemistry, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina.

Mattana Claudia
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina

Dr. Alcaráz Lucía
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina

Laciar Analía
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina

Satorres Sara
Department of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of San Luis, San Luis, 5700, Argentina.

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In vivo and in vitro Study of Piper longum Explants for Anticancerous, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties | Chapter 3 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Piper longum is a medicinal plant of great importance. The present work is to compare anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of different explants (leaf and stem) of Piper longum in vivo and in vitro. The anticancerous activity was measured in terms of percentage cytotoxicity and the cell line used was leukemic cell line K562. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria were used for determination of antibacterial activity. Solvent extracts were prepared from leaf and stem explants of Piper longum and their anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was measured in terms of percentage (%) Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and percentage (%) 2,2– diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazy1 (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The aqueous Piper longum fruit extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro studies. The anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant effects were found to be higher for hot extracts than cold extract. Further the results of in vivo explants were better than in vitro explants, in case of anticancerous activity and results of in vitro explants were better than in vivo explants, in case of antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

Author (s) Details

Sudipta Banerjee
Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, 825301, India.

G. R. Pathade
Department of Biotechnology, Fergusson College, Pune, India.

M. A. Mallick
Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, 825301, India.

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Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Methyl N-[1-(benzoylamino)-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl]Tryptophanate| Chapter 14 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 4

The title compound, methyl N-[1-(benzoylamino)-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl]tryptophanate 2, have been synthesized in high yield, via N-alkylation reaction of methyl 2-azido-2-benzamidoacetate with methyl 2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoate in acetone, with the presence of diisopropylethylamine as a base. The structure of the prepared compound was characterized by 1H, 13C NMR in addition to MS, X-Ray diffraction data, and elemental analysis. This compound was tested in vitro for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric. The MIC values showed that the synthesized compound had a bactericidal effect against the strains tested.

Author(s) Details

Oumaima Karai
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco

Younas Aouine
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, P.B. 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir 80060, Morocco.

Anouar Alami
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Hassane Faraj
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Abdelilah El Hallaoui
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco

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Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Diethyl 1-((4-Methyl-2-phenyl- 4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate: Advanced Study| Chapter 8|Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 4

The compound, diethyl 1-((4-methyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylate 2, was synthesized in high yield, through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of 4-(azidomethyl)-4-methyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole and diethyl but-2-ynedioate in the absence of a solvent. The structure of the synthesized compound was established on the basis of NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C), X-ray crystallography and MS data. The prepared compound was also tested in vitro for its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The calculation of MBC/MIC ratio showed that this triazole derivative 2 had a bactericidal effect on the two strains tested.

Author(s) Details

Hassane Faraj
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

Abdelilah El Hallaoui
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (LCO), Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, P.B. 2626, Fez 30000, Morocco.

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Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on Some Pathogenic Gastrointestinal Bacteria | Chapter 11 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

The emergence of antibiotic resistance as well as the recent undesirable side effect of some of the commercially available antibiotics has led to the screening of plant extract in order to discover new drug that could serve as alternative therapy for the treatment of various infections and diseases. Fresh leaf of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) sample was collected, air-dried at room temperature and blended to powder using electric blender. The extraction was done using reflux extraction method and methanol as solvent. The phytochemical analysis and the antibacterial activity of O. gratissimum were determined to ascertain the different phytochemicals present in the plant extract. The extract was also tested against some selected Gram negative intestinal pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species, by reconstituting the extract in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to obtain different concentration (0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 g/ml) and agar well diffusion techniques were used to evaluate the antibacterial susceptibility of the leaf extract. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, phenol, saponin, steroid and tannins. The result of antibacterial analysis showed that the extract of O. gratissimum has antibacterial activity against E. coli. This could be as a result of the presence of various phytochemicals or the interaction of one or more of the identified metabolites against the test organisms. However, there was no zone of inhibition (antibacterial effect) recorded on Salmonella and Shigella spp. as they were resistant to the extract. The results obtained from this research, suggest that Escherichia coli was susceptible to the leaf extract and the plant could be used as potential source of natural product for the treatment of infection.

Author(s) Details

Agholor Kin
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Lucy M. Yaki
Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Idris Abubakar
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Lucy F. Olusola
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria.

Rakiya Zubairu
Department of Biological Science, Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria

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