Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire | Chapter 9 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Coteˆ d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119) chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR). From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8%) were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. On the other hand, detection of virulence putative gene shows presence of cadF in 100 % of tested strains. In addition, cdtA, cdtB and cdtC genes were detected in 100%; 69.43% and 71.06% respectively of C. jejuni isolates. Moreover, only cdtA gene of cdt genes was detected in 12.82% of C. coli strains tested in this study. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.  

Author(s) Details

Dr. Goualié Gblossi Bernadette
Laboratoire  de Biotechnologies, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources  Biologiques, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 01 BP 582, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Dr. Akpa Eric Essoh
Laboratoire  de Biotechnologies, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources  Biologiques, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 01 BP 582, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Dr. Kakou-N’Gazoa Elise Solange
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Dr. Guessennd Natalie
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

Dr. Bakayoko Souleymane
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Prof. Niamké Lamine Sébastien
Laboratoire  de Biotechnologies, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources  Biologiques, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Biosciences, Université de Cocody-Abidjan, 01 BP 582, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

Prof. Dosso Mireille
Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.

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Biochemical Characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum Isolated from Infected Cotton Plant and It’s in vitro Sensitivity against Some Selected Chemicals | Chapter 10 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Aim: The aim of our study is to isolate, identify and pathogenicity test of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam) causing bacterial blight of cotton and to determine the comparative efficacy of some selected chemicals and antibiotic in controlling Xam in vitro.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January, 2012 to December, 2013.

Methodology: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum was isolated from infected leaves, stems, branches, cotyledons and bolls of cotton. Biochemical characterization and in vitro sensitivity were evaluated as per the standard methods as described in materials and methods.

Results: The bacterium was gram negative, rod shaped and showed positive results in KOH solubility, starch hydrolysis, catalase, citrate utilization, motility indole ureas agar (MIU), gelatin liquefaction test and oxidase test. It produced, slightly raised, blond to bright yellow colour, mucoid colonies on NA medium; circular, flattened or slightly raised, yellow to bright yellow colour, mucoid colonies on YDCA medium and light yellow, mostly circular, slightly flattened on SX medium. In vitro evaluation of selected chemicals revealed that Streptomycin sulphate was highly effective against Xam. In in vitro condition, the highest inhibition zone (35.33, 36.17, 35.17, 33.5 and 32.33 mm after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hrs. respectively) was observed in Streptomycin sulphate @ 0.15% treated plates.

Conclusions: Streptomycin sulphate showed higher effectivity against X. axonopodis pv. malvacearum compared with selected fungicides.

Author(s) Details

Salma Sarker
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. N. Sultana
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. F. M. Aminuzzaman
Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.

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Use of Clinical and Laboratory Clue to Diagnose Anaerobic Infections in Limited Resource Setting | Chapter 08 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Increase in life threatening infection despite the use of antimicrobial among patient’s in limited resource areas has made it imperative to investigate bacteria causing infections. However, comprehensive anaerobic bacteriology of clinical specimens is expensive and time consuming procedure. With advance in diagnostic techniques, the role of anaerobic bacteria in the etiology of various infection has become increasingly recognized. While a number of infections or intoxication due to anaerobic bacteria or their toxins arise from exogenous source such as the soil the majority are often endogenous origin arising frequently from the intestinal tract, oral cavity or the female genital tract. This chapter therefore highlight pointers for clinical and laboratory clue of anaerobic infection, additionally practical laboratory procedure to Isolate and identify anaerobes have been explained.

Author(s) Details

Sima E. Rugarabamu
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.

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The Antibiotic Resisting Profile of Salmonella spp Isolated from the Sewage of the Campus of the University of Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire | Chapter 04 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Background: Recent studies have shown that wastewater is contaminated by salmonella sp., pathogenic antibiotics-resisting bacteria. Using wastewater in periurban agriculture in Abidjan is likely to be the source of food-borne diseases such as salmonellosis. However, what we know about these resistant salmonella spp. in wastewater is limited in the country.

Aims: This study aims to establish the susceptibility profile of Salmonella spp., isolated from wastewater to antibiotics and to antimetabolite commonly used by medical practitioners.

Study Design: Spatio-temporal variation was taken into account.

Place and Duration of Study: The study took place from August 2008 to January 2009 at the main campus of the University of Cocody in Abidjan.

Methodology: Sampling was done on a weekly basis. Wastewater samples were collected at four different sewers in the campus area. Salmonella sp was isolated by a standard method of laboratory. The resistance of these isolated species to antibiotics was determined according to the disk diffusion method of Kirby-Baeur. The serotypes of salmonella were identified with the Kauffman-White table

Results: Five serotypes of eleven strains, which consist of 4 Hato, 3 Farmsen, 2 Derby, 1 Essen and 1 Ovonmouth, were isolated and tested in order to determine their resistance to antibiotics.   Amongst the various classes of antibiotics, high resistance was found to sulfonamid (100%), followed by cefotaxime (46.67%) and tetracycline (9.1%).  Ampicillin, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, gentamicin, kanamycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacine,  nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol had a high potentiality: their efficacity in the elimination of the Salmonella sp was proved at a level of 100%. Although the majority of strains tested (85.94%) were eliminated by the antibiotics, the serotypes Derby, Hato and Farmsen   showed resistance.

Conclusion: The Wastewater in the area of the main campus of the University of Cocody contains the antibiotic-resisting strains of salmonella sp. In spite of the fact that the efficacity of some antibiotics in the elimination of Salmonella sp. is proved, the resistance of these strains to third generation of cephalosporin and sulfamid is worrisome. Further studies should be carried out to determine the effects of this antibiotic-resisting salmonella species on humain health. This study revealed, the presence of various Salmonella serotypes in wastewater Salmonella Derby, S. Essen, S. Farmsen, S. Hato and S. ovonmouth. It also showed out the degree of resistance of these strains to commonly used antibiotic drugs. It also revealed that the strains are resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins (β-lactam antibiotics (cefotaxime)), cyclin including tetracycline and antimetabolites (sulfonamide). Even though, 11.58% of Salmonella strains resisted to antibiotics, Salmonella serovars remain totally sensitive to  phenicoles, aminoglycosides, quinolones and other β-lactam particularly the penicillins Group A. These phenotypic characters of Salmonella allow to understand the challenges related to the treatment of salmonellosis and also to understand the necessity on a rational use of antibiotics.

Author(s) Details

Coulibaly Kalpy Julien
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Côte d’Ivoire.

Gadji Alahou André Gabazé
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.
Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, University Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire.

Koffi Kouadio Stephane
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Pasteur Institute, Côte d’Ivoire.

Yapo Ossey Bernard, PhD
Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, University Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Dosso Mireille
Pasteur Institute of Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory Studies and Research Chemicals and Microbiological Contaminants in Foods (UNERCO) Unit, Côte d’Ivoire.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctdah/v1

Brucellosis of Testis and Epididymis: An Update of the Literature | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 4

Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which has the ability to afflict a number of organs and tissues.  Brucellosis  epididymoorchitis  (BEO),  a  complication  of  human  brucellosis,  can  emanate  in complications. In brucellosis non-endemic areas, some clinicians may be unfamiliar with the disease entity which may lead to delay in the diagnosis.

Aim: To review the literature on BEO, in order to document its presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome following treatment as well as update the literature related to the disease.

Methods: Various internet data bases were usedto obtain literature on BEO.

Results  /  Literature  Review: BEO (epididymitis  plus  or  minus  orchitis)  is  a  complication  of  an infection  caused  by  brucella  species  which  can  be  transmitted  via  contact  through  the  respiratory tract, skin, or conjunctiva, and through the gastrointestinal tract pursuant to ingestion of unpasteurized milk/milk products or raw infected meat. BEO does in endemic areas affect 2% to 20% of patients who have been afflicted by brucellosis but the disease can also be encountered sporadically globally in non-endemic areas. BEO could at times be bilateral. The manifestation of BEO is non-specific and it could be mistaken for non-specific epididymo-orchitis or epididymitis or testicular tumour or abscess. Ultrasound  scan  and  MRI  scan  findings  are  not  specific  to  BEO.  Diagnosis  of  BEO  may  be established by (a) history of contact, (b) cultures from blood/epididymal aspirations, (c) various types of laboratory studies including: (I) Culture, (II) PCR, and (III) serology. Laboratory test criteria for the diagnosis  of  Brucellosis  is  divided  into  (I)  those  for  presumptive  diagnosis  and  (II)  those  for confirmatory diagnosis: BEO can be effectively treated by means of combination chemotherapy for about six weeks but at times orchidectomy or drainage of testicular collection  may be necessitated for persistence of symptoms or suspicion of a tumour / testicular abscess. Relapses of brucellosis can occur hence careful follow-up of patients is required.

Conclusions: BEO can occur anywhere globally. A high index of suspicion is thus  required  from clinicians in order to establish early diagnosis of the disease. Most cases of BEO can be effectively treated with combination chemotherapy for about 6 weeks. Clinicians should be aware that brucellosis epididymo-orchitis, brucellosis  epididymitis  and  epididymo-orchitis  exist  and  this  condition  could  be unilateral or bilateral, though more commonly encountered in brucellosis endemic areas because of global travel the disease entity may be encountered sporadically globally.

Author(s) Details

Mr Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo MB ChB FRCS(Ed) FRCSI FGCS Urol. LLM

Department of Urology, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctmmr/v4