In vivo and in vitro Study of Piper longum Explants for Anticancerous, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties | Chapter 3 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Piper longum is a medicinal plant of great importance. The present work is to compare anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of different explants (leaf and stem) of Piper longum in vivo and in vitro. The anticancerous activity was measured in terms of percentage cytotoxicity and the cell line used was leukemic cell line K562. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria were used for determination of antibacterial activity. Solvent extracts were prepared from leaf and stem explants of Piper longum and their anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was measured in terms of percentage (%) Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and percentage (%) 2,2– diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazy1 (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The aqueous Piper longum fruit extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro studies. The anticancerous, antibacterial and antioxidant effects were found to be higher for hot extracts than cold extract. Further the results of in vivo explants were better than in vitro explants, in case of anticancerous activity and results of in vitro explants were better than in vivo explants, in case of antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

Author (s) Details

Sudipta Banerjee
Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, 825301, India.

G. R. Pathade
Department of Biotechnology, Fergusson College, Pune, India.

M. A. Mallick
Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, 825301, India.

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Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Clitoria ternatea leaves of Blue and White Flower | Chapter 09 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2

The present study was conducted to screen the phytochemical constituents, identifying the compounds present by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS), functional groups present by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT- IR) in the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Clitoria ternatea white flower, explicit the antibacterial activity, antioxidant assay of using methanol and ethyl acetate leaves extract of Clitoria ternatea blue and white flower. Clitoria ternatea leaves of blue flower possess 7.5% of total ash whereas leaves of white flower possess 8.5%. The phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves of blue flower contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, coumarins, catechol, quinines, gum and mucilage while, in leaves of white flower had alkaloids, glycosides, catechol, gum and mucilage were present. A total of 8 compounds such as 1- Decanol, 2- ethyl, 1- Eicosanol, Sulphurous acid octadecyl 2- propyl ester, Eicosanoic acid, L- (+)- ascorbic acid 2,6- dihexadecanoate, Sulphurous acid, pentadecyl 2-propyl ester, Oleic acid, 1-Hexyl-2 nitrocyclohexane were detected in the ethyl acetate leaves extract of C. ternatea white flower using GC-MS. FT-IR analysis of the same had  characteristic bands at 2983.88 cmˉ1 indicating the presence of C-H stretching. The ethyl acetate leaves extract of white flower C. ternatea had antibacterial and antifungal activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. kruzi. The total phenolic content of methanolic leaf extract of C. ternatea blue flower was 25 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/ g Dry Weight (mg GAE / g DW), and leaf of white flower was 18 mg GAE / g DW. The total flavonoid content of methanolic leaf extract of C. ternatea blue flower was 10 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g Dry Weight (mg QE / g DW), and leaf of white flower was 5 mg QE/g DW. Maximum scavenging activity of 86.6% was observed in leaf ethyl acetate extract of blue flower (DPPH assay). Maximum scavenging activity of 82% (H2O2 assay) and 95% (total antioxidant) was observed in the ethyl acetate leaf extract of white flower. 

Author(s) Details

J. Anbumalarmathi
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai -600 086, India.

A. Divya
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai -600 086, India.

S. Aruna Sharmili
Department of Biotechnology, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai -600 086, India.

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Comparative Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Vegetables on Physical and Chemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity | Chapter 13 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

The objective of this research was to perform a quantitative and comparative analysis of physical and chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity in organic and conventional carrot (Daucus carota), green pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Five representative samples of each conventional vegetables, certified organic and non-certified organic vegetables were gotten from farms and supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All samples were underwent the following analyzes: reducing sugars, total sugars, ºBrix, vitamin C, density, acidity, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. The result shows that the organic carrot showed higher acidity (0.11 g% citric acid) and total sugar (5.68 g%) than those found in standard samples and certified organic ones (p<0.05). Regarding the density analysis and total soluble solids, there was no statistical difference between carrots, green peppers and lettuce from all types (p>0.05). It was observed that the vitamin C levels in carrot samples levels had no significant difference between the different forms of production (p>0.05). Conventional lettuce and certified organic pepper showed higher vitamin C than the other samples (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of the samples was analyzed by the capacity to reduce the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl- hydrazyl) radical, in which carrot and conventional pepper showed lower antioxidant activity (p<0.05) when compared to organic samples. There were no significant differences among the different forms of production in the lettuce samples (p>0.05). Carrot and green pepper, with seal certification or not, showed higher capacity to reduce DPPH than the conventional ones, this suggests that the form of cultivation has a direct relationship with the nutritional values of the vegetables.

Author(s) Details

Fernanda de Oliveira Pereira
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Renata dos Santos Pereira
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Lana de Souza Rosa
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Dr. Anderson Junger Teodoro
Nutritional Biochemistry Core, Laboratory of Functional Food and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science, University Federal of Rio de Janeiro State, UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Contribution of Three (3) Medicinal Plants of Senegalese Flora in the Management of Sickle Cell Disease | Chapter 07 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 4

Sickle cell disease is a major public health problem in Africa and many other areas across the world. Many  drugs  that  are  available  for  treating  the  disease  are  insufficiently  effective,  toxic,  or  too expensive. Therefore, there is a pressing need for safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic agents from  indigenous  plants  used  in  traditional  medicines.  In  Senegal,  a  lot  of  plants  are  proposed  by traditional healers to manage the sickle cell disease, among them Combretum glutinosum, Leptadenia hastate and Maytenus senegalensis.  These plants were studied in this work. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of part of these plants were evaluated on SS sickles type to determine their anti-sickling potential. Antiradical properties of methanolic extract of C glutinosum were evaluated using the  DPPH  radical  as  oxidant.  Total  phenolic  content  of  the  methanol  extract  was  determined. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of methanol revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, phenols, anthracenics and flavonoids. Results show a good antisickling effect of methanol extracts with a maximum antisickling revers of 72, 80 and 81% for respectively M senegalensis, L hastateand C glutinosumat 10 mg/mL in 120 min incubation while ethyl acetate extract at the same conditions has 62, 66 and 77% of sickling reverse. Arginine used as the positive reference has 67% sickling reverse activity at 120 min of incubation. The measured IC50 were 0.65 and 0.163 for respectively the methanol  extract  and  ascorbic  acid.  Antiradical  powers  0.155  and  0.62  respectively  for  methanol extract and ascorbic acid were calculated from the effective concentrations. The results of this study confirm the traditional use these three plants in the management of sickle cell disease.

Author(s) Details

Pr. Cheikh Sall

Laboratory of Chemistry, Training and Research Unit of Health, Thies University, PB 967 Thies, Sénégal.

Pr Matar Seck

Laboratory of Organic and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology (F.M.P.O.), Cheikh Anta Diop University (U.C.A.D.), PB 5005 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.

Rokhaya Sylla Gueye

Laboratory of Organic and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontology (F.M.P.O.), Cheikh Anta Diop University (U.C.A.D.), PB 5005 Dakar-Fann, Sénégal.

Tandakha Ndiaye Dieye

Laboratory of Immunology, Pharmacy and Odontology (F.M.P.O.), Cheikh Anta Diop University (U.C.A.D.), Sénégal.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aast/v4