Evaluation of In vitro Antioxidant and Diuretic Potential of Ethanol Extract of Gongronema latifolium Leaves on Wistar Albino Rats | Chapter 5 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

Medicinal herbs are the significant source Diuretics, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Gongronema latifolium had been widely used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The diuretics, phytochemicals and antioxidant properties were evaluated considering their possible contribution to improve the use of herbal products in treatment of diseases. The phytochemical properties such as Tannins, Alkaloids, saponin, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and terpenoid were observed to be present after the qualitative analysis on the plant extract. The antioxidant activity was determined using nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activities. The plant extract showed 93.18% inhibition in nitric oxide at highest (200 µg/ml) used. This is higher when compared to DPPH and lipid peroxidation extract which are 90.652 and 90.99 mg respectively. The percentage inhibition of the plant extract showed low inhibition concentration as against 50% (IC50). Seven groups of two rats each was used for diuretic study. Ethanol leaf extract was administered intra-peritoneally to the rats at doses of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. Furosemide (40 mg/kg) was used as positive control. This was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion. The extracts produced a significant increase in urine volume at 200 and 400 mg/kg (1.50 and 1.90) respectively and enhanced urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate (p<0.05). The result obtained showed that Gongronema latifolium has potential and significant phytochemical, antioxidant and diuretic properties.

Author (s) Details

Dr. O. D. Omodamiro,
Pharmacology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.

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In vivo Antioxidant Activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in K2Cr2o7 Induced Oxidative Stress by Measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species Levels in Rats | Chapter 09 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 3

Ayurvedic textbooks ascribe many therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant actions to Sida cordifolia Linn. which contains many polyphenols in its roots and seeds.  Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant action in rats of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. roots has been done by introducing potassium dichromate for creating acute and chronic oxidative stress. The Folin- Ciocalteu reagent was utilized for assessing the phenol content which was determined as 27.375 mg Gallic acid/gm. During the acute toxicity tests using mice, no significant adverse signs or symptoms of toxicity were noticed up to the dose of 1500 mg/kg and no mortality was reported until this dosage. The Phosphomolybdate Assay using 3, 6 and 9 mg/ml of research drug concentrations resulted in determination of the Total Antioxidant Capacity that was found to be 15.40 ±9.13, 19.00 ±7.56 and 21.02 ±8.42 gm equivalents of Ascorbic acid. The results of the d-ROMs test which assessed the hydroperoxide levels clearly suggested that introduction of research drug could significantly counter the negative effects of both acute and chronic oxidative stress. Broadly similar findings were obtained by using ELISA kit for assessing ROS values where concurrent administration of the research drug resulted in very significant amelioration in respect of oxidative stress conditions.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mradu Gupta
Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education and Research, 294/3/1, APC Road, Kolkata, India.

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Buddleja Species Distributed in Mexico against Inflammatory Diseases, Their Therapeutic Activities, Secondary Metabolites and Biotechnology | Chapter 08 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

B. americana, B. cordata, B. parviflora, B. perfoliata, B. scordioides and B. sessiliflora, belonging to Buddleja Genus, are species distributed in Mexico reported in folk medicine to treat ills related to inflammatory processes. For some of them, this ethnopharmacological uses have been validated by scientific studies. Their phytochemistry has been related for their medicinal properties, being mainly iridoids, flavonoids and phenylethanoids because all of them are secondary metabolites credited with anti-inflammatory biological activity. Particularly, in folk medicine, those plants showing high concentrations of verbascoside secondary metabolite have been traditionally used to treat inflammation. In B. cordata, a cell culture has been developed since plant cell and tissue culture is a biotechnological tool that allows producing bioactive secondary metabolites in high concentrations as an alternative and sustainable form different to extraction from whole wild plants; meantime this protects wild medicinal plants from excessive use and collects. This cell culture produced verbascoside in a higher concentration than whole wild plant and the methanolic extract obtained from the cells demonstrated to be a satisfying anti-inflammatory agent on in vivo pre-clinical studies of acute and chronic inflammation, due to it modulates the production of interleukins expressed during an inflammatory process, lymphocytes tissue concentrations, decrease oxidative stress and leukocyte infiltration. New scientific studies should be done in those Buddleja species distributed in Mexico that have not credited its anti-inflammatory ethnomedicinal effect as well as to start on developing works to establish plant cell and tissue cultures. Moreover, new works should be continued about biotechnological advances on B. cordata. The aim of this work is to review the therapeutic activities, secondary metabolites and biotechnology advances of Buddleja species distributed in Mexico used against inflammatory diseases.

Author(s) Details

María Elena Estrada-Zúñiga
Centro de Investigación en Recursos Bióticos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Carretera Toluca-Ixtlahuaca Km 14.5, San Cayetano CP 50295, Toluca, Estado de México, México.

Gabriel Alfonso Gutiérrez-Rebolledo
Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina CP 09340, México D.F., México.

Aurelio Nieto-Trujillo
Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina CP 09340, México D.F., México.

Dr. Antonio Bernabé-Antonio
Departamento de Madera, Celulosa y Papel, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5. Carretera Guadalajara-Nogales, Col. Las Agujas, CP 45010, Zapopan, Jalisco, México.

Francisco Cruz Sosa
Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina CP 09340, México D.F., México.

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A Review on Gongronema latifolium, an Extremely Useful Plant with Great Prospects | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Gongronema latifolium is a plant that has a wide range of nutritional and ethnomedical uses in different tropical African communities. Scientific reports on the chemical composition and bioactivity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and allelopathic properties) of the plant material by different authors are discussed in this review. Future prospects of the plant extracts in the areas of herbal formulations, food preservation, alcoholic fermentation and beer production, drug discovery and allelopathy are also highlighted.

Author  Details:

Olugbenga Morebise

Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, All Saints University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica.

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