Effect of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (DC) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-induced Dyslipidemia: Current Knowledge | Chapter 11 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Introduction: Diabetic dyslipidemia (DD)  is  a collection  of  quantitative,  qualitative and  kinetic  lipid abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus that together caused the lipid profile to become more atherogenic.  It  consists  of  elevated  serum  concentration  of  triglyceride-cholesterol  (TG-C),  a  high serum level of small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sd LDL-C), low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and normal to slightly elevated level of total low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C).

Aims: Diabetic  dyslipidemia  is  a  recognized  risk  factor  for  coronary  heart  disease  (CHD). Plant medicinal  agents  such  as Cymbopogon  citratus (C.  citratus)  have  shown  potential  as alternative therapies for reducing cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C. citratus leaf extract on the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in diabetic dyslipidemic rats (n=35).

Materials and Methods: A C. citratus extract was prepared by ethanol extraction of leaf material. Rats were divided into seven groups (n=5) as follows: (a) Normal diet control, (b) Hyperlipidemic diet (HLD)  control,  (c)  HLD  +  65 mg/kg  streptozotocin  (STZ)  control  (d)  HLD  +  STZ  +  250mg/kg C. citratusextract (CCE), (e) HLD + STZ + 500mg/kg CCE, (f) HLD + STZ + 1000mg/kg CCE, and (g) HLD + STZ + 5mg/kg atorvastatin + 600μg/g glibenclamide. Animals were treated with HLD for 14 days and then injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ. Confirmed diabetic dyslipidemic animals were  treated  intragastrically  with  CCE  at  doses  of  250,  500,  and  1000mg/kg,  with  5mg/kg atorvastatin, and with 600μg/g glibenclamide for 30 days.

Results: The extract, which tested positive for tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, etc. lowered fasting  blood  glucose  and  glycosylated  hemoglobin  levels,  and  dose-dependently  decreased  the serum levels of T-chol, LDL, VLDL, and β-HMG-CoA reductase, while simultaneously increasing HDL levels. The AIP was lowered in a dose-dependent manner by 33, 43.7, and 52.4% in groups treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg of CCE respectively.

Conclusion: The  results  indicate  that  the C.  citrates extract  had  an  ameliorative  effect  on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherogenic index of plasma.

Author(s) Details

Christopher Edet Ekpenyong

Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

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