Attitude and Perception to Tattoos and Scarified Skin Marks in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria | Chapter 13 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Aim: Tattoo art which has been practiced all over the world for centuries is undergoing a revolution. Some people like it, others don’t. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of tattooing among students and residents of Makurdi, like or dislike, who gave consent before tattooing, symbolism/motive of tattooing and whom to go to for removal of tattoos.

Study Design: A survey research using structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection among students of Benue State University and residents of Makurdi over a period of one month in January, 2017.

Methodology: Views of one hundred and seventy two residents and  students  in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria, were collated via a pre-tested structured questionnaire and analyzed on the basis of sex, age, like/dislike of tattoos, symbolism, consent given, whether one would tattoo himself if given a chance and what to do when one got tired of tattoos.

Results: Two hundred and ten questionnaires were administered and one hundred and seventy two were returned giving attrition rate of 18.1%. All returned questionnaires were completely filled. One hundred and seventy two respondents participated in the study comprising 123 males and 49 females giving a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. Twenty one respondents had tattoos giving a tattoo prevalence of 12.2%. One hundred and thirty eight (80.2%) did not like tattoos and forty two (24.4%) indicated that there was no significance to symbolism of tattoos and indeed thirty (17.4%) felt tattoos are a body mutilation. One hundred and fifty one (87.8%) indicated they will not have tattoos when given a chance to do so. Ninety seven (56.4%) believed the best person to go to for tattoo removal is a Plastic Surgeon.

Conclusion: The study showed that majority of students and residents of Makurdi metropolis in Nigeria do not like tattoos and would not like to have one when given a chance to do so. A large scale study involving other parts of Nigeria needs to be done to assess a true like/dislike of tattoos in this environment.

Author(s) Details

Dr. P. Denen Akaa
Department of Surgery, College of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Dr. C. N. Ahachi
Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.

Dr. Ojo Babarinde
Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria.

View Volume:


Assessment of Attitude and Practice of Food Hygiene among Food Handlers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria | Chapter 02 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 3

Background: Food handlers have an important role to play in food businesses and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering food-borne illnesses. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude and practice of food hygiene among food handlers in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study in design. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 170 respondents. Data were collected using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire and observational checklist. Statistical analyses (proportions, chi-square tests) were carried out using IBM-SPSS version 20.

Results: Majority (75.9%) of the study participants were females, 84.1% were in the age range of 20-49 years. Most of the respondents (98.2%) had one form of education or the other. Only 4 (2.4%) of the restaurants had adequate physical infrastructure, availability of water supply, toilet facility, refuse and dish/hand washing facilities. Slightly above half (52.9%) of the study subjects had positive attitude toward food hygiene while only 27.6% had good practice. Only 33.5% of them wore apron, 27.1% covered their head, 18.2% did not handle money while serving food to consumers. There were however significant associations between level of education and infrastructure/environment of food premises with attitude and practice of food hygiene.

Conclusion: Though there was some level of positive attitude toward food hygiene, their practice was poor. Only few restaurants had adequate infrastructure for operation. Thus, there is high risk of food contamination in the food businesses. Health education intervention programs for food handlers will help to prevent food-borne diseases/illnesses. Also regulatory agencies and government should ensure that all food premises used for preparation and sale of food to the public meet the minimum standard for operation.

Author(s) Details

B. I. Ituma
Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

C. Onwasigwe
Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

E. U. Nwonwu
Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

B. N. Azuogu
Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

N. C. Eze
Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Nigeria.

View Books:

The Relationship between Small Scale Farmers’ Attitude towards Maize Farming and Maize Yield in the Agricultural Reform Era: The Case of Western Region of Kenya | Chapter 08 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 2

Statement of the problem: The introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) and trade liberalisation resulted in agricultural reforms in Kenya and other developing countries. Hence the Kenya government no longer gives incentives to small scale farmers. This may have affected the attitude of small scale farmers’ towards maize farming and hence maize yield.

Study Purpose: The study was concerned about maize production in Western Region of Kenya because maize is the main staple for most of the Kenyan population and Western Region is the food basket. 

Research Design: The study used Ex-post facto research design via cross sectional survey.

Materials and Methods: Busia, Bungoma, Mt. Elgon and Lugari Counties were purposively selected to represent the Western Region of Kenya. Two sub-counties from each of the four Counties were selected by simple random sampling. For uniformity purposes 200 small scale farmers were selected from focal areas through systematic random sampling hence ensuring that they all had been exposed to extension staff. Four key informants were sampled purposefully based on their positions of authority. In addition, 52 extension staffs were sampled through systematic random sampling. The small scale farmers were interviewed with the help of interview schedule containing open and closed ended questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: The study revealed that attitude towards maize farming correlated maximally to maize yield and that farmers’ attitude towards maize farming contributed to 17.4% of the variance in maize yield.

Conclusion: This means that the extension staff and change agents should improve the attitude of the farmers in order to improve maize yield.

Recommendation: The study recommended that the extension staff should teach the small scale farmers on the changes that have been brought about by Structural Adjustment Programmes and market liberalisation and how to take advantage of such opportunities such as form strong common interest groups. Research should develop innovations that would result in high maize yield at low farming costs.

Author(s) Details

Adijah M. Ali-Olubandwa
Department of Applied Community Development Studies, Egerton University P.o Box 536, Kenya.

Timothy E. O. Wesonga
Department of Agriculture and Food Security, East Africa Community (EAC), Tanzania.

Read full article:
View Volume:

Patients’ Perceptions and Attitudes towards Patient information Leaflet (PIL) | Chapter 9 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Background: Patient-tested and -friendly  information leaflets provide  sufficient, accurate, and pertinent information about prescribed and over-the-counter medications to health consumers for their safety,  enhanced  satisfaction, improved  outcomes and no medication errors across the globe. However healthcare consumers’ knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception concerning different items of drug leaflets differ across the board.

Objective: This study aimed to explore knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception of patients towards drug/patient information leaflets in Riyadh, capital city of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used a self-designed reliable questionnaire for collecting relevant data about drug leaflets from purposefully selected participants (n=319) attending ambulatory clinics of a main hospital of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh.

Results: The majority of patients were females (75%), 61% patients were between the ages of 20 to 30 years, and 58% of the participants were educated to university level. About 61% to 97% of participants agreed to knowledge, attitude and behaviour items, and only 26% patients perceived that the drug information provided by healthcare professionals suffices on its own without the drug leaflets. About 62% of the participants observed that the information in the drug leaflet is more useful than the information given verbally by healthcare professionals. The majority of patients (66% to 99%) expressed variably positive behaviour and favourable attitudes toward drug leaflet information. The participants ranked ‘indications’ (31.4%) and ‘how to use’ (26.7%) drugs as the two most important sections in drug leaflet.

Conclusion: Drug leaflets are important sources of drug information both for patients and general public globally and improve their knowledge as well as positive effects on their attitude, perception and behaviour.  Healthcare  professionals  need  to  encourage  health  consumers  to  read  the  drug leaflets which need to be patient-friendly and be written clearly in understandable lay terminology and native language. Future studies should explore and compare the knowledge base of those patients who read patient information leaflet (PIL) with those who do not read it across Arabian Gulf countries.

Author(s) Details

Saud M. Alsanad
College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU),Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Naseem A. Qureshi
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Read full article:

View Volume: