Knowledge and Awareness of Anthrax among the Community People at High, Medium and Low Risk Areas of Bangladesh | Chapter 04 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess information about the awareness, attitudes and management practice towards Anthrax. Administrative areas of Bangladesh had been classified as high, medium, and low risk anthrax areas by assessing the risk of anthrax from reports published in daily newspapers and journals. The selected high, medium and low risk areas were Kushtia, Pabna and Mymensingh, respectively. The animal owners and family members, butchers, affected people by cutaneous anthrax were considered as the key informants. Data of management practice including feeding, awareness of zoonosis; vaccination and formal education were collected using interview-questionnaire method. A total data of 622 was collected and uploaded to the data collection tools “Magpi” and the data analysis was carried out using Epi Info™. We found a great worry about educational status in our study sites. Among the interviewers, we found about Half of people had no formal education (46.46%, 289/622). Farmers in the high risk districts significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from medium-(p=0.000) and low-(p=0.000) risk districts. Knowledge of zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination of Anthrax were also very poor among the people from low and medium risk areas. For treatment purpose, most of the farmers (about 98%) of high and low risk areas depend on village doctors. We also found that Improper washing of grass-(p=0.000) and flood-(p=0.000) were significantly responsible for Anthrax outbreaks. Finally we suggest, proper washing of grass, increase awareness towards zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination, proper treatment by veterinarian should be insured to reduce Anthrax outbreak in Bangladesh.

Author(s) Details

K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

Md. Ariful Islam
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

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Impact of Vermicomposting Training Programme on Production, Economics and Employment Generation of Farmer – A Case Study | Chapter 11 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Vermicomposting technology is a simple and quick process of converting farm waste into valuable compost which in-turn acts as a source of the organic amendment for improving soil health enhancing crop production, in which certain species of earthworms are used to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product. Vermicompost has at least four times more plant nutrients than conventional cattle dung compost. Vermicomposting is also act as a source of creating self employment and revenue generation. The technologies available at present in the field of agriculture have no relevance whatsoever if these are not reached and adopted by the farmers for the improvement of crop productivity. Krishi Vigyan Kendra is a district level knowledge centre formed under the policy guidance of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and which acts as the apex body to govern the Transfer of Technology (TOT) across the nation. One of the mandates of such district level knowledge centre is to provide vocational training to the farming individuals’ viz. farmer, farm women, rural youths, and unemployed school drop-outs. The farmers can learn the vermicomposting technology through hands on training and take-up this as a venture for additional income generation apart from crop husbandry and make this as one of the components in Integrated Farming System (IFS) for creating employment. Keeping this in view, the present study was undertaken to analyse the impact of vocational training in specific relevance to vermicomposting technology provided to the intended clientele group during 2012. The crux of the study was focused on the impact indicators like a) change in the level of production b) economics c) additional employment generated etc., on the intended clientele group. The present research study was confined to the operational cum jurisdictional area catered by Krishi Vigyan Kendra of Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. One of the farmers by name Mr. V. Sekar of Kodukoor village in Cuddalore district attended the vocational training on vermicomposting organized by ICAR- KVK Cuddalore during 2012. Mr. V. Sekar got motivated and started a vermicomposting unit of size 6 x 2 x 2 feet with the technical guidance from KVK Cuddalore. The scientific validation of study revealed that Mr. V. Sekar was earning a net annual income of Rs. 1,15,500/- through the sale of vermicompost and earth worms, thereby generating an additional employment of 426 man-days per year. It was concluded that the vocational training and technical backstopping extended by the KVK Cuddalore was the most viable technology transformation tool in enhancing farmers’ income and employment generation.  So, vermi-composting is a potent technology to convert organic waste to valuable product and to provide additional income for farmers. The success of any production system basically depends on need, availability of inputs and marketing channels by which one can market with remunerative price by using locally available resources.  Some of the teething issues like marketing and linkages must be formulated by the policy makers to promote marketing of such farm products to sustain the farmers’ income and soil health in future so as to maintain nature ecology intact.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Dhanushkodi
ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirugamani, Tirchirappalli -639 115, Tamil Nadu, India.

G. Porkodi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Virudhachalam, Cuddalore 606 001, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Knowledge and Awareness of Glaucoma among Population of Western Saudi Arabia, Taif City | Chapter 09 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, it accounts for blindness in 3% of the population above the age of 40 years. Moreover, Hospital-based observations and studies acknowledge the distribution of various subtypes of glaucoma in the kingdom. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies which designed to assess general population level of awareness regarding glaucoma in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess general population knowledge and level of awareness in the western region of Saudi Arabia, Taif city.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a public place in Taif City, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the glaucoma awareness week in 2018.  A total of 409 respondents participated and completed the study questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis, where descriptive data was expressed as numbers and percentages, and the Chi-square (χ2) test was applied to test the relationship between variables. Quantitative data was expressed as mean and standard deviation (Mean ± SD), and Mann-Whitney (U) test was applied to compare medians for groups not normally distributed. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: Of the 409 interviewees participated, 62% were females with a mean age of (26 ±13) years, where the majority of males and females participants had a secondary school education (40% and 42% respectively). Most of the male and female respondents have heard of glaucoma before (63.1% and 61.1 respectively). Male participants defined glaucoma as a group of diseases that can damage the eye’s optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness (41.1%), while the majority of females defined glaucoma as a slow drainage of fluid within the eye which causes fluid to build up leading to increased intraocular pressure within the eye (39%). Male participants ranked family members as the primary sources of information about glaucoma (41%) followed by medical campaigns (24.2%), while female respondent’s ranked medical campaigns as the primary source of information (34.1%), followed by family members (33%). Female respondents in this study showed a high level of awareness concerning glaucoma disease compared to male respondents. 

Conclusion: While there is relatively good awareness level among the population in Taif city, further studies in different regions of the country on different population sectors are needed to assess knowledge and awareness level for a better understanding of the population’s age distribution, demographic differences regarding glaucoma awareness.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ashwaq Mohammed Almalki, MD
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Faisal Ali Alotaibi, MD
Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ameenah Alkhaldi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Omar Ahmed Asiri, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Nawwafwaiel Aljuaid, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amalsaleh Alsofyany, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Asim Ali Alzahrani, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Sarah Binbaz, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amjad Althagafi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Sarah Obaid Dhafar, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Amalturki Altowairqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ozoofmatar Alghashmari, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Majed Mansour Aljuaid, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Qasemmuidh Alharthi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Rayan Khalid Almalki, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Hosamtalal Mashrah, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Ruba Qadi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Fatmahmeteb Alnufei, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mohammed Obied Altwerqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Dr. Mansour Mohammed Altwerqi, MD
College of Medicine, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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