Biodiesel Synthesis from Cameroon Palm Kernel Seed Oil | Chapter 1 | Current Strategies in Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology Vol. 1

Aims: This study was aimed at synthesizing and characterizing a biodiesel from Cameroon palm kernel oilseed. Study Design: Synthesis was carried out on purified kernel oil by trans-esterification using methanol in basic medium. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory work was effectively carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering (Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria) and at the Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company (K.R.P.C), Nigeria, in the early part of the year 2017. Methodology: Oil was extracted from Cameroon palm kernel seeds, which constitutes an agricultural industrial waste, by mechanical expression, was purified and analysed. Palm kernel oil (PKO) biodiesel was synthesised by trans-esterification in methanol with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a base catalyst at the mass ratio PKO to methanol to KOH of 100:20:1. Results: The yield of optimised synthesis of biodiesel was 97%, with a useful by-product (glycerol) which has potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and engineering applications. PKO biodiesel was analysed using UV and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Biodiesel had the following physical characteristics: specific gravity 0.884 g/mL, ASTM colour 1.5, viscosity at 40ºC 4.9080 cSt, viscosity at 100ºC 1.7914 cSt, cloud point 17ºC, pour point 0ºC, flash point 50ºC, aniline point 90ºF, cetane number 28, and diesel index 25. The following chemical parameters were obtained for the synthesized PKO Biodiesel: sulphur content 0.0328% w/v, acid value 0.4488 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid (FFA) content 0.2244 mg KOH/g, iodine value 7.36 mg I2/g, saponification value 168.30 mg KOH/g, ester value 154.84 mg KOH/g, hydroxyl value 51.89 mg OH/g and peroxide value 3.20 meq/kg. Conclusion: These results of physical and chemical characterisation of PKO biodiesel fell

Author(s) Details

Dr. Alang Michael Bong,
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Peter T. Ndifon

Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Yahya Muhammad Sani
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.


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Biodiesel Process Intensification | Chapter 03 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

An investigation on process intensification on biodiesel production was carried with Jatropha curcas seed oil, methanol and five solid base catalysts in a process intensified pilot plant. This Process Intensify Pilot Plant had not the following unit operations as in conventional plants; Neutralizer, Washer, Dryer, Heat exchanger and Condenser to reduce production cost. Five samples of biodiesel were produced with 3 moles of methanol to 1 mole of oil and 1.5 % catalyst loading (w/w of oil). Methyl ester yields of 97.4, 96.94, 95.76, 99.99 and 98.25 % catalyzed by bulk calcium oxide (CaO), super base calcium oxide (CaO/(NH4)2CO3), bulk magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide/magnesium oxide (CaO/MgO) and 10 % impregnated potassium on calcium oxide/magnesium oxide (K-CaO/MgO) were obtained respectively. The products were analyzed in accordance with ASTM, EN and ISO standards for biodiesel and were found satisfactory for use in compression ignition engines. All the biodiesel samples were found not to be easily oxidized as they did not have poly-unsaturated esters such as: linoleate (18:2) and linoleneate (18:3). It was found that this process produced clean biodiesel devoid of glycerol. Also one of the findings from this study is transesterification does not support reversibility.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Haruna Ibrahim
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Department of Petrochemical and Allied, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

Abdulkarim S. Ahmed
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Idris M. Bugaje
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria and Department of Petrochemical and Allied, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria.

Ibrahim A. Mohammed-Dabo
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

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