Dragon Fruit: The Super Fruit | Book Publisher International

Indian has agriculture supported economy having over increasing population, but heading towards food self sufficiency. One of the ways to boost up farming economy is adaption of high value low input requirement crop having diversified adaptability with various agro-climatic areas of India. The dragon fruit (Hylocereus sp.) is gaining its popularity for immense scope to grow as a commercial high profitable crop due to its rich nutraceutical properties and good for processing industry also. In the context of food diversity farmers are looking for new crops which are remunerative or having good nutraceutical properties and ensure return in short period. Among the new fruit crops, dragon fruit has potential for use to prevent nutrition-related disorders and improve physical and mental well-being of the consumers. Thus, its use is included in herbal medicine in many countries like China. In India, some initiatives have been taken to demonstrate its cultivation in few parts of the country. But, India imports (95 % of its demand) mostly from Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka etc. and fetch high prices in market.

Therefore, it also now is being taught in regular courses in many agricultural institutes. But, there is a gap between the knowledge, availability of literatures and skill for its successful cultivation, production of model nursery etc.

Keeping this view, an attempt has been made to make a complete information guide as book with special references to its Area and production, Nutritional composition and important uses, Origin and distribution, Taxonomy and botanical description, Types and varieties, Soil, Climate, Propagation, Nursery, Transplanting, Trellising, Pruning, Manures and fertilizer application, Irrigation, Intercultural operation, Floral biology, Flowering and Fruiting, Off season production, Harvesting and yield, Post harvest management, Crop improvement, Pest and diseases, Economy of production and Global market importance etc. I hope, it will help the growers, students and researchers as well.

I am indebted to the working groups in this field across the globe for their contribution. I duly acknowledged the literatures, web materials, books, journals etc which are consulted. I also express my deep gratitude to Book Publisher International, for completing this job carefully. I am very grateful to my parents, teachers and colleagues for their encouragement. I am also thankful to my family members for support. I express my heart full thanks to my friends and my dear students who helped me for the entire process. I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to my all teachers who prepared me at every level of my education.

Readers are requested for valuable suggestions for the improvement of this publication for its wide acceptability.

Author(s) Details

Sutanu Maji

Department of Applied Plant Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh -226025, India

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Previously Unrecognized Primary Factors in the Demise of Endangered Torrey Pines: A Microcosm of Global Forest Die-offs | Chapter 13 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Objective: Forests worldwide are experiencing die-offs on an unprecedented scale. So too is the endangered Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana. Just as the global toxicity from acid rain was recognized and abatement measures taken, a new undisclosed source of atmospheric toxins from geoengineering rapidly escalated to near-global scale. Published forensic evidence is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main particulate used for geoengineering. The objective of this paper is to disclose unrecognized primary factors arising from geoengineering which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and global forest die-offs.

Methods: Snow and fog water samples collected after aerial spraying were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and interpreted in light of extensive field observations.

Results: Atmospheric moisture extracts many elements in water-soluble form from aerosolized CFA, including aluminum, which is hazardous to many biota, especially trees. Needles and leaves trap toxin-laden atmospheric moisture, and concentrate it by evaporation. Additionally, toxin-concentrate evaporates on needles and leaves, adversely affecting respiration. Eventually, the re-solubilized toxin-concentrate falls to the ground and enters the root system. This is one of the primary factors which underlie the demise of Torrey Pines and forest die-offs worldwide. Another primary factor is enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation, which is caused, we posit, in part by disruption of atmospheric ozone by aerosolized CFA, which contains ozone-killing chlorine in variable amounts ranging as high as 25,000 µg/g. Together, these primary debilitating factors weaken trees’ natural defenses and make them vulnerable to insects, such as bark beetles, fungal infections, and other biotic factors.

Conclusion: We disclose a natural mechanism whereby trees’ needles and leaves concentrate toxins extracted by moisture from aerosolized coal fly ash used for intentional, man-made weather and climate change. This form of deliberate air pollution must be halted to preserve Earth’s forests.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

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Fifty Years after “How to Wreck the Environment”: Anthropogenic Extinction of Life on Earth | Chapter 12 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aims: Fifty years ago geoscientist Gordon J. F. MacDonald penned a book-chapter entitled, “How to Wreck the Environment”, in which he described how a nation might alter the environment so as to covertly inflict harm on an enemy nation. Our objective is to review MacDonald’s suggestions of environmental warfare strategies in light of subsequent technological advances, and in the context of actual deployment of the war methods he described.

Methods: We review the interdisciplinary, historical, scientific and medical literature.

Results: MacDonald discussed overt and covert weather warfare based upon seeding clouds to cause rainfall. Subsequently, a method was developed for inhibiting rainfall by jet-emplacing pollution particulates where clouds form. For at least two decades citizens have observed such particulate trails occurring with increasing frequency. Forensic scientific investigations implicate toxic coal fly ash as their main constituent. Around 2010, the aerial particulate spraying ramped-up to a near-daily, near-global level. Presumably, a secret international agreement mandated the aerial spraying as a ‘sunshade’ for Earth. However, aerial spraying, rather than cooling, heats the atmosphere, retards Earth’s heat loss, and causes global warming. MacDonald also discussed destroying atmospheric ozone and triggering earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, activities now possible with high-frequency ionospheric heaters.

Conclusions: The U. S. military’s ongoing decision to weaponize the environment for national security purposes was accurately forecasted by MacDonald. But he failed to realize that national militaries could and would be co-opted by a secret international agreement the consequence of which, however unintentional, was to wage war on planet Earth, on all its biota, and on its natural, biogeochemical processes. Unless and until politicians, news media, scientists, and others in our society face the truth of what is happening before their very eyes and collectively demand a halt to these covert technological activities, we will march onward – to the first anthropogenic-caused mass extinction.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

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Further Evidence of Coal Fly Ash Utilization in Tropospheric Geoengineering: Implications on Human and Environmental Health | Chapter 11 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

We disclose a fourth independent line of evidence, based on the co-precipitation technique, pointing to coal fly ash as the material utilized in tropospheric geoengineering, and describe some of the adverse environmental and public health risks associated with its persistent application. During a snow storm, the fluffy snow traps geoengineering-aerosol-particulates and brings them down with the snow. The results of the ICP-MS analytical measurements of the snow-melt particulates we tested are consistent with three independent lines of evidence that coal fly ash is the main aerosolized particulate used for tropospheric geoengineering. Coal fly ash tropospheric geoengineering inhibits rainfall to change weather/climate which disrupts habitats, including arable habitats. Long periods of artificially induced drought can wreak economic disaster on farmers, and shift the delicate balance in nature, weakening natural defenses and giving a boost to aggressive pathogens. Coal fly ash when exposed to water or body fluids can release a host of toxic chemicals including neuro-toxic aluminum in a chemically mobile form and carcinogens such as arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and the radioactive elements, uranium, thorium and their daughter products. The only safe geoengineering is no geoengineering at all.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

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California Wildfires: Role of Undisclosed Atmospheric Manipulation and Geoengineering | Chapter 10 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

In this Review, we aim to reveal an unrecognised source of causality leading to increases in combustibility, intensity, and the extent of California, United States of America wildfires, and the concomitant harm to human and environmental health. We review literature, including scientific and medical, and evidence, including photographic, of near-daily, near-global jet-spraying particulates in the atmosphere as related to wildfires. We review the evidence that atmospheric manipulation utilising aerosolised coal fly ash is a primary factor in the extent and severity of forest fires in California and elsewhere; adverse effects include exacerbation of drought, tree and vegetation die-off and desiccation, and unnaturally heating the atmosphere and surface regions of Earth. Forest combustibility is increased by moisture-absorbing aerosolised particles that damage the waxy coatings of leaves and needles, reducing their tolerance to drought. The aerial climate manipulation using coal fly ash greatly increases the potential for forest fire ignition by lightening. Wildfires dramatically worsen baseline air pollution, emitting harmful gases and volatile organic compounds, and they both concentrate and re-emit toxic elements and radioactive nuclides over a wide area.  The type of air pollution created by wildfires is associated with increased all-cause mortality, with the greatest impact on respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that aerosolised coal fly ash is an important risk factor for chronic lung disease, lung cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Failure to recognise multifold adverse consequences of jet-spraying particulates into the atmosphere, we submit, will continue the progression of ever-accelerating ecological disasters.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

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Air Pollution, Not Greenhouse Gases: The Principal Cause of Global Warming | Chapter 09 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aim: Gottschalk demonstrated the bump coincident with World War II is a robust feature showing up in eight independent NOAA temperature databases. Without contradicting Gottschalk’s conclusion, I consider the broader activities of WW2, especially the manner of altering Earth’s delicate energy balance by particulate aerosols and then generalise to post-WW2 global warming. The aim is to present evidence that particulate pollution, not greenhouse gases, is the principal cause of global warming.

Methods: Arrange seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident.

Results: The World War II wartime particulate-pollution, I submit, had the same global-warming consequence as the subsequent ever-increasing global aerosol particulate-pollution from (1) increases in aircraft and vehicular traffic, and the industrialization of China and India with their smokestacks spewing out smoke and coal fly ash and from (2) coal fly ash covertly jet-sprayed into the region where clouds form on a near-daily, near-global basis. Spraying coal fly ash into the atmosphere not only causes global warming by altering Earth’s delicate thermal balance, but it is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and neurodegenerative disease, as well as being involved in the global catastrophic bee and insect die-off and in forest die-offs worldwide, poisoning the biosphere with mercury, and destroying atmospheric ozone that protects us from the sun’s deadly ultraviolet radiation. The continued deliberate pollution of our atmosphere with aerosolised coal fly ash will inevitably cripple our ability to produce food crops and will cause untold death and destruction, for example, by altering Monsoon weather patterns and by exacerbating wildfires.

Conclusion: The main cause of global warming is particulate pollution, not greenhouse gases. Unless atmospheric modification utilising aerosolised coal fly ash is halted, we drive ever-forward toward the first anthropogenic mass extinction of life on Earth.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

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Contamination of the Biosphere with Mercury: Another Potential Consequence of On-going Climate Manipulation Using Aerosolized Coal Fly Ash | Chapter 08 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Objectives: Atmospheric aerosol climate manipulation has been undertaken since at least the beginning of the 21st century, with increasing frequency and duration, without public discussion, and without disclosure of the particulate matter composition being placed into the air we breathe. Nor have the effects of this activity on biota including humans been discussed. Forensic evidence published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature is consistent with coal fly ash (CFA), the toxic waste-product of coal-burning, being the main undisclosed geoengineering-particulate. The objective of this paper is to provide additional evidence that the particulate matter aerosolized in the atmosphere during geoengineering activities is coal fly ash and to consider the concomitant potential consequences of contaminating the biosphere with mercury.

Methods: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to investigate evidence bearing on the composition of geoengineering material.

Results: Analyses of rainwater and snow provide further evidence that coal fly ash is the primary component dispersed in the atmosphere for geoengineering purposes. Consequently, this near-daily, near-global climate manipulation activity poses a previously unrecognized risk for environmental mercury contamination by deliberately aerosolized CFA that contains mercury in variable amounts (Table 1) ranging as high as 2 µg/g.

Conclusion: Despite strengthened mercury emission regulations, mercury measured in rainwater is increasing. Since it is known that the upper troposphere contains oxidized, particle-bound mercury, it is likely that covert aerosolized coal fly ash sprayed into this region is a major source of mercury pollution. Mercury affects multiple systems in the body, potentially causing neurological, cardiovascular, genitourinary, reproductive, immunological, and even genetic disease. Because atmospheric climate manipulation using coal-fly-ash-based aerosols represents a potential globally pervasive environmental-source of this toxic element, it must be recognized and appropriate steps taken to halt climate geoengineering.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

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Evidence of Variable Earth-heat Production, Global Non-anthropogenic Climate Change, and Geoengineered Global Warming and Polar Melting | Chapter 07 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Climate models evaluated by the IPCC are based on the assumptions that: (1) Heat derived from the Sun is constant; (2) Heat derived from within the Earth is constant; and, (3) Anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric warming stem mainly from heat retention by CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Geophysical evidence of variable earthquake activity and geological evidence of variable submarine volcanism presented here indicate that heat added to the oceans is variable. The increasing occurrences of earthquakes of magnitudes ≥6 and ≥7 during 1973-2015 indicate volcanic activity is increasing and therefore Earth-heat, as well as volcanic CO2 additions, is increasing. Moreover, increased heat additions to the ocean act to decrease seawater solubility of CO2, ultimately releasing additional CO2 to the atmosphere. Furthermore, increasing submarine volcanic activity implies increasing ocean acidification, but data are insufficient to make quantitative estimates. The validity of IPCC evaluations and assessments depends critically upon due consideration being given to all processes that potentially affect Earth’s heat balance. In addition to the geological and geophysical processes discussed, the scientific community, including IPCC scientists, has turned a blind eye to ongoing tropospheric geoengineering that in recent years has been occurring on a near-daily, near-global basis. Tropospheric aerosolized particulates, evidenced as coal fly ash, inhibit rainfall, heat the atmosphere, and cause global warming. Evidence obtained from an accidental air-drop release indicates efforts to melt glacial ice and enhance global warming. By ignoring ongoing tropospheric geoengineering, IPCC assessments are compromised, as is the moral authority of the United Nations.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

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Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles | Chapter 06 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

In the physical sciences, attempts to describe processes, events, and phenomena upon the basis of problematic paradigms can be wholly incorrect and lead to physically impossible consequences, e.g., the ultraviolet catastrophe of radiation physics, and/or can necessitate ad hoc assumptions and can be unreasonably complex, e.g., the epicycles of planetary physics. Like epicycles, I suggest that supercontinent cycles, sometimes referred to as Wilson cycles, are artificial constructs, attempts to describe geological observations upon the basis of problematic paradigms. Here I describe the foundation for that assertion and offer insight into a fundamentally different geoscience paradigm, Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics, which obviates the need to assume supercontinent cycles.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

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An Indication of Intentional Efforts to Cause Global Warming and Glacier Melting | Chapter 05 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aims: On or about February 14, 2016, an oily-ashy substance was accidently released by an aircraft and fell on seven residences and vehicles in Harrison Township, Michigan (USA). The aims of this investigation are to analyze the “air-drop material” and from the results obtained to draw inferences as to the intended purpose of the material.

Methodology: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were used to analyze the “air-drop material”.

Results: The “air-drop material” was found to consist of an assemblage of plant material mixed with coal fly ash and salt. The splatter pattern on vehicles, ground, and rooftops resembles cryoconite holes observed on ablating glaciers worldwide. The “air-drop material” resembles to some extent natural cryoconite, and appears to be modeled after that substance with coal fly ash imparting the dark gray color that absorbs sunlight, melts glacial ice, and contributes to global warming.

Conclusions: The results of this investigation provide evidence that is indicative of a deliberate effort to hasten the melting of glaciers and thereby hasten global warming. If so, this investigation reinforces the net effect of daily particulate aerosol spraying in the troposphere observed worldwide. Elsewhere the author has provided evidence that coal fly ash is the primary material being employed in such spraying whose net effect is to enhance global warming. Scientists worldwide should call for, and indeed demand, a full and open investigation into these covert geoengineering activities whose potential impacts on Earth’s climate system, the integrity of Earth’s biota, and on human health may prove to be extremely hazardous.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

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