Analysis of Renal Stones by FT-IR Spectroscopy: A Helpful, Simple and Accurate Tool | Chapter 02 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

Aims: To investigate, by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the chemical composition of urinary calculi obtained from patients of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Duration of Study: The composition of the urinary calculi was evaluated in a retrospective study from March 1993 to December 2018.

Methodology: Infrared spectra of the urinary calculi were recorded in a Bruker IFS-25 FT-IR, Bruker Alpha-T and in a Nicolet 380 FT-IR spectrophotometers. We included 542 urinary stones (331 from men and 211 from women). The samples were obtained by spontaneous passage, shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.

Results: Calcium oxalate (both in pure or mixed samples) was detected in 396 cases (73.06%). Anhydrous uric acid and struvite+apatite (7.56%) were both observed most frequently, followed by carbonate apatite + amorphous Ca-phosphate (2.58%) and cystine (2.03%). For some chemical compounds, a significant gender-related difference was found. Applying the second derivative spectra allowed to distinguish between the presence of whewellite, weddellite and their mixture. 73% of recurrent urinary stones were of the same chemical composition.

Conclusion: FT-IR analysis of urinary calculi over a period of 25 years gave an outlook of the prevalence of certain stone components in patients from Buenos Aires, Argentina, which in some cases were found to be gender-related. The results obtained are in accordance with statistics from other industrialized countries, except for uric acid (13.61%), even pure or combined in other forms, which was more frequent than the world prevalence (up to 10%). FT-IR spectroscopy combined with the second derivative method of analysis proved to be a powerful tool to discriminate mixed oxalates whose composition only differed in one water molecule.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Liliana V. Muschietti
Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Cátedra de Farmacognosia, IQUIMEFA (UBA-CONICET). Junín 956, 2°P (1113), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Prof. Dr. Viviana Campo DallOrto
Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Cátedra de Química Analítica, IQUIFIB (UBA-CONICET). Junín 956 3°P (1113), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Prof. Dr. Gustavo L. Garrido
Cátedra de Urología, Hospital de Clínicas “José de San Martín”, Av. Córdoba 2351 4°P (1120), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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Identification of the Essential Oils from Annona senégalensis Pers. Sous-espèce Oulotricha Le Thomas (Annonaceae) | Chapter 07 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Annona senegalensis Pers., Oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), is an evergreen shrub that is used for ethnomedicinal purposes and as a source of food. The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves, stems bark, roots bark, epicarp and mesocarp of these plant, growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3-97.7%), dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (21.8-88.3%), with elemol (13.2-35.0%), β-and γ-eudesmols (3.7-58.3%) as characteristic components. The essential oils from roots and stems bark is distinguished by its high content in diterpenes (17.1 and 11.9% of the total), while the seeds presents a significant amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons (25.8%) with α-pinene (6.2%) and β-phellandrene (11.5%) as major components accompanied by two oxygenated monoterpenes : bornyle acetate (4.5%) and smallest of 1,8-cineole. However, in the epicarp oil, the presence of about 5.8% of oxygenated monoterpenes as terpinen-4-ol and bornyle acetate in comparable rates (1.7%) was noted. The mesocarp oil is exclusively rich in aliphatic fatty acids (35.8%) which is absent in the other organs, but represented by lauric acid (18.0%), hexadecanoïc acid (8.6%), myristic acid (7.2%) and oleic acid (2.0%). Results were compared with same species collected in the democratic republic of Congo and in Cameroon essentially dominated by monoterpenes (84.2 and 87.6%).

Author(s) Details

Nkounkou-Loumpangou Célestine
Unit of Chemistry of Plant and of the Life, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, B.P. 69, Brazzaville, Congo.

Gouollaly Tsiba1, Mahmout Yaya
Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences, University of N’Djamena, BP 1117, N’Djamena, Chad.

Elouma Ndinga Arnold Murphy
Unit of Chemistry of Plant and of the Life, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, B.P. 69, Brazzaville, Congo.

Ouamba Jean-Maurille
Unit of Chemistry of Plant and of the Life, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, B.P. 69, Brazzaville, Congo.

Chalchat Jean Claude
Heterocycle Chemistry Laboratory, Carbohydrate Chemistry, Essential Oil Chemistry, Blaise Pascal University. 4, avenue des Landais, Campus des Cézeaux, 63177, Aubière, France.

Figuérédo Gilles
Laboratory of Analysis of Plant Extracts and Flavors, Blaise Pascal University, 4, avenue des Landais, Campus des Cézeaux, 63177, Aubière, France.

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Amylase Rich Malted Foods on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women, Lactating Women and Preschool Children in Lepakshi Mandal of Ananthapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India | Chapter 01 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2

Two types of Ready to Use Amylase rich malted mixes (Ragi / Wheat in combination with green gram) were formulated and suitable products namely laddu, roti, kheer and porridge were prepared using formulated malted mixes . The incorporation of malted green gram mix and skimmed milk powder to the wheat malted mix and ragi malted mix helped to improve nutritive value of the malted mixes, specially  protein, energy, iron, calcium and ‘B’ complex vitamins . After collecting baseline information of the identified villages of 3 mandals, Lepakashimandal was selected for implementing the study based on the availability of more subjects of low socio economic group with majority of families belonging to schedule caste and schedule tribes. ARMMs of two types (ragi/wheat) were formulated.

Information of preschool children (400), pregnant women (100) and lactating women (100) was collected. Anthropometric, hemoglobin, clinical and morbidity assessments were carried out before & after supplementation. Amylase Rich Malted Mixes (ARMMs) 2 types (Ragi/Wheat) were formulated and suitable products namely laddu, roti, kheer and porridge were prepared using formulated malted mixes. Malting decreased grain length, width, kernel weight (0.45 to 19.0g), volume (0.50 –31.2 ml) and hardness (1.12 to 5.9 kg/cm2), thus reduced the bulk density of the malted mixes. Chemical composition revealed that, the significant increase (P<0.05) in fat (2.27 g), carbohydrate (98.0 g) and calorie (396 kcal) content of wheat malted mix. However significant increase was observed in calcium (440 mg), thiamine (0.7 mg) and riboflavin (0.9 mg) content of ragi malted mix. Germinated greengram had significantly higher protein (33.0 g), fibre (11.5 g), iron (8.0 g) and vitamin C (157.8 mg) content. The selected preschool children, pregnant women & lactating women were divided into 3 groups. Group II and III fed with ragi malted mix & wheat malted mix respectively served as the experimental groups and remaining group I served as the control group. Significant increase was observed in weight of preschool children and lactating women after supplementation. Hemoglobin level in pregnant and lactating women significantly increased (P<0.01) after supplementation. Considerable reduction (50%) in the incidence of PEM, vitamin A, B vitamins, vitamin C and iron deficiency symptoms in experimental groups. After supplementation, morbidity rate decreased to 50% both the Group II and III.

Author(s) Details

Prof. (Mrs.) Vijaya Khader
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Post Graduate and Research Centre, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India.

Prof. (Mrs.) K. Uma Maheswari
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Post Graduate and Research Centre, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India.

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