Early Childhood in Mexico: Historical and Cultural Psychology and Neuropsychology | Chapter 09 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

According to conception of historical and cultural psychology, introduced by L.S. Vigotsky, early childhood should be understood as a specific period of development or specific psychological age. Appropriate ways of care, communication, developmental procedures and organization of life should be taken into account by parents, teachers and other specialists. In the reality of Mexican Institutions such aspects are not always considered as important guidelines for treatment of children with normal and abnormal development. Only medical and hygiene aspects are normally respected. The objective of the article is to describe general information about early childhood institutions in Mexico and to present original proposal for organization of specialized attention for early development. The authors present experience in attendance of newborns and young children during first two years of life in Hospitals and Institutions of the city of Puebla.  Special attention is directed to original proposals for organization of emotional and personal communication between adult and child in specific kinds of joint actions. Results of concrete studies with normal newborns and newborns with neurologic risks are included. The authors discuss the importance of qualitative approach based on the theory of cultural activity for profound understanding of the significance of early age in the stream of cultural development and the possibility to creation of important recommendations for organization of care and life in broad social context. Finally, it is necessary to express that the present work tries to provide a new perspective into clinical and educative practices with the babies during the first two years of life. The concept of functional system becomes even more significant from the perspective of our research and findings. In other words, it might be the path for understanding of interaction of different levels of human activity at the early age: psychological level and the level of brain mechanisms. It is obvious that the present work shares the opinion that early stimulation might not be limited to isolated motor exercises. Early development is cultural from the very beginning and should involve complex cultural mechanisms from the very beginning. The family in particular and the adults in general should take the job into their hands with proper understanding of the essence of cultural development.

Author(s) Details

Yulia Solovieva
Faculty of Psychology, Puebla Autonomous University, Mexico.

Héctor Juan Pelayo González
Faculty of Psychology, Puebla Autonomous University, Mexico.

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Methods and Procedures of Neuropsychological Correction in Preschool Children with ADDH | Chapter 05 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

According to psychological and neuropsychological research, the pre-school age is the age of significant changes and transformations. Attention deficit disorder is one of developmental syndromes frequently detected at pre-school age. The present study shows the methods and procedures of neuropsychological assessment and correction. Methods and procedures of correction are based on the conception of activity applied to game activity. The study includes results of neuropsychological correction obtained in the group of Mexican pre-school children with diagnosis of deficit of attention. Neuropsychological correction was designed and applied in individual therapeutic sessions. The method of qualitative neuropsychological clinical analysis based on Luria’s neuropychological theory was applied. The subjects of the study were Mexican pre-school children with diagnostic of ADDH from private urban zone. The previous neuropsychological assessment showed the necessity of inclusion of specific methods of correction for formation not only of strategies of regulation and control, but also of spatial functions in population of children with ADDH at pre-school age. Both aspects, programming and control and spatial functions were included in the program of games with objects, symbols, rules and roles. All games were attractive for participants and produced high motivation and positive emotional involvement. Neuropsychological assessment accomplished after program application showed significant positive differences in psychological activity of the children and in brain functional mechanisms. The authors discuss the possibility of the usage of interactive guided activities such as games with structure and objective as an alternative method instead of common medication in cases of ADDH.

Author(s) Details

Yulia Solovieva
Faculty of Psychology, Puebla Autonomous University, Mexico.

Luis Quintanar Rojas
Department of Neuropsychological Diagnosis and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Psychology, Puebla Autonomous University, Mexico.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/62/710/584-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/pass/v2