The Relationship between Stunting and Some Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors among Yemeni Children and Adolescents | Chapter 6 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sex, residence area, age group, school enrollment, poverty status and income quintiles variables on the prevalence of stunting among Yemeni children and adolescents. The investigation was done on all children and adolescents (3004) aged 5-19 years that included in the last Yemeni household Budget Survey (YHBS) data of 2005/2006. The data included a classification to the poverty status of surveyed households. The cutoff of -2 z scores of the height-for-age reference suggested by NCHS, was used to calculate the prevalence rate of stunting. Descriptive, categorical testing, logit modelling statistical analysis tools were used in the investigation. The statistical analysis shows the overall prevalence rate of stunting as 49.5% and the prevalence of stunting among males is higher than females. The prevalence of stunting among rural children and adolescents is higher than the urban children and adolescents and among children and adolescents who were not enrolled is higher than those enrolled. Children and adolescents of poor households were suffering from stunting (52.8%) as comparing to children and adolescents of non-poor households (47.7%). Children and adolescents living with the poorest, second and middle-income households were 1.76, 1.73 and 1.46 times more likely to be stunted respectively. The research provides an evidence that the childhood health situation in Yemen is chaotic and needs careful and effective cooperation and efforts both nationally and internationally to divert the foreseen danger looming.

Author(s) Details

Muhammed A. K. Al-Mansoob

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sana’a University, P.O. Box 12092, Yemen

Muhammed S. A. Masood

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education and Language, Amran University, Yemen. View Book –

Malaria Related Deaths among Children with Manifestations of Fever Symptoms on Admission in a Secondary Health Care Institution in Western Region of Ghana – A Retrospective Study | Chapter 3 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 3

Background: Malaria is a major contributor to deaths in children especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Children less than five years of age are susceptible to malaria infection in endemic regions leading to serious complications. Malaria causes death in children either directly through Cerebral Malaria (CM) and Severe Malaria Anaemia (SMA) or indirectly through co-morbidity with pneumonia or a sequela like hypoglycaemia.

Methods: This retrospective study examined malaria-related deaths among children at Effia-Nkwanta hospital within a study period of 3 years.

Results: A total of 1,416 medical records were reviewed, out of which 223 were medical records of children with fatal outcomes. Deaths over the study period due to all causes were 15.7% (223/1416) and confirmed malaria was 13.7% (40/292). Deaths due to all causes and confirmed malaria decreased from 21.6% and 24.3% in 2010 to 11.1% and 4.4% in 2012, respectively. Anti-malarial testing was done for 152 of the children with 40 positive and 112 negative results. Seventy-one children had no malaria testing done on them, with 23.4% in 2010 40.3% in 2011 and 35.5% in 2012. Anti-malarial treatment was administered to 83% of children who tested negative and 80% of children without anti-malarial testing.

Conclusion: Deaths in the children declined from 2010 to 2012 in this study. Despite this improvement, there was poor anti-malarial testing and improper use of anti-malarial treatment. National malaria programs should ensure improvement in anti-malarial testing and strict adherence to the anti-malarial treatment protocol.

Author(s) Details

Verner N. Orish

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana.

Adekunle O. Sanyaolu,  

AMOOF Healthcare Consulting, Canada.

Mahama Francois,

Ho Polytechnic, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana.

Bruku K. Silverius,

Takoradi Polytechnic, Sekondi-Takoradi, Sekondi, Western Region, Ghana.

Onyekachi S. Onyeabor,

Department of Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Chuku Okorie,

Essex County College, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Nnaemeka C. Iriemenam,

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria. View Book –

No Association between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection among Children in Ore Community, Southwestern Nigeria | Chapter 04 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 6

Aim: To determine if there was any association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection among children in Ore Community, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methodology: Urine samples were collected from 438 children and examined microscopically for ova of Schistosoma haematobium. A sample of 3 ml of blood was drawn from each participant for HIV test. Antibodies to HIV were determined using Determine HIV1/2 kit, Unigold kit and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 30.1% while that of HIV infection was 0.9%. None of the 132 S. haematobium infected children had HIV infection while 1.3% of the 306 children negative for S. haematobium were positive for HIV test.

Conclusion: This study did not show any evidence of association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection among children in Ore, Southwestern Nigeria. Therefore, urogenital schistosomiasis may not play a significant role in the spread of HIV infection in a locality where HIV prevalence is low.

Author(s) Details

C. Igbeneghu
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

S. A. Adedokun
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

A. A. Akindele
Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

J. M. Olisekodiaka
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria.

D. E. Idolor
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

and O. Ojurongbe
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

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Potential Risk Factors and Prevalence of Infection of Helicobacter pylori in Nigeria | Chapter 14 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 1

Aim: Potential risk factors and prevalence associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in apparently healthy children in Nigeria were studied.

Study Design: To investigate the current potential risk factors associated with recent prevalence of H. pylori in apparently healthy children in Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in two Local Government Areas, Alimosho and Ajeromi, of Lagos State, Nigeria between March and September 2014.

Methodology: Seroprevalence status of 185 asymptomatic children made up of 93 males and 92 females, aged between 2-16 years were selected by randomized stratified sampling with descriptive questionnaire. Serum immunoglobulin G H. pylori antibody of the individual subjects was determined using DiaSpot H. pylori kit while fecal samples of same group were analysed for HpSAg using immunoassay test kit of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSAg).

Results: Of 185 children tested for H. pylori antigen, 134 (68.7%) and 51(26.2%) were classified as seropositive and fecal HpSA positive respectively. Highest rate of 40.0% and 34.6% of the children weighing between 21 and 40 kg were positive while 29.2% and 32.5% children of parents that were traders were positive to serum H. pylori antigen and fecal HpSA respectively. Only 12.4% and 14.1% children from artisan parents were positive but different age group have no association with the infectivity or prevalence of fecal H. pylori antigen (OR=0.67, CI=0.142-0.152). Significant higher percentage of seropositivity of 59.0% and fecal positivity of 55.7% was recorded among children from 5-8 people in a room (p>0.05), while Households with regular potable water supply have lower H. pylori seropositivity and fecal positivity of 11.9% and 7.6% compared with households that sometimes have water supply. The Households that never had water supply had highest number of seropositivity of 40.0% and 18.4%, respectively. Sewage nearness to kitchen indicates 30.8% and 28.7% H. pylori seropositive and fecal positivity rate among children.  

Conclusion: Paediatric H. pylori prevalence is highly associated with water borne infection and poor sanitary practices. There is need for achievable interventions and improvement in environmental sanitation.

Author(s) Details

F. O. Olufemi
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria.

Quadri Remi
Department of Microbiology, College of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

P. A. Akinduti
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Nigeria.

S. A. Bamiro
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria.

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Quality of Life of Palestine Children Exposed to Wars in Gaza | Chapter 02 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the impact of trauma due to wars on quality of life of Palestine children living in Gaza with special reference to 2009 war.

It is analytic study; the study sample consisted of 195 children and adolescents who were selected purposely from three areas in the Gaza Strip. Those children exposed to variety of traumatic events besides losing their homes during ground incursion of the border and shelling and bombardment of the area. They were 101 boys (51.8%) and 94 girls (48.2%). The age ranged from 7 to 18 years with mean age of 12.84 (SD = 2.9). Children were assessed by socio-demographic questionnaire, Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, and Health Related Quality of Life.

Results: The highest frequencies of reported traumatic events by Palestinians children were 97.9% hear shelling of the area by artillery, 93.3% hear the sonic sounds of the jetfighters, 90.8% watched mutilated bodies in TV, and 85.6% were forced to move from home to a safer place during the war. The study showed that mean total quality of life was 62.80, physical functioning was 69.87,   emotional functioning was 51.96, mean of social functioning was 77.62, and school functioning mean was 47.53. Total traumatic events reported by children were negatively strongly correlated with total Health Related Quality of Lief (HRQoL), physical, emotional, and social functioning. However, traumatic experiences by children were not correlated with school function.

Conclusion: In summary, this study not only supports the findings of the body of research as it relates to traumatic experiences in children and adolescents and impact of their health quality of life, but also has important implications for establishing and implementation of different psychosocial intervention programs for the school-aged population in Gaza Strip. There are need to be considered in the planning of educational and mental health support services by different governmental United Nations organizations, and non-governmental organization in Gaza. Also, successful treatment of the mental health symptoms associated with traumatic events first requires an acknowledgment of the trauma and then a process which allows for comprehensive assessment and accurate diagnosis. 

Author(s) Details

Prof. Abdelaziz Mousa Thabet
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Al-Quds University, School of Public Health, Child Institute, P.O.Box 5314, Gaza, Palestine.

Sanaa S. Thabet
Child and Family Training and Counseling Center-NGO, Palestine.

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Intestinal Helminthiasis and Its Association with Hemoglobin Level among Primary School Children in Sokoto Metropolis | Chapter 06 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

Intestinal helminthes are associated with the reduction in the level of haemoglobin. This abnormal reduction in haemoglobin results in anemia. The study determined the prevalence of parasitic infection and its relationship with haemoglobin level among primary school children in Sokoto metropolis. Stool and blood samples were collected from 224 children from some selected primary schools in Sokoto Metropolis. The stool specimens were examined for parasites by both macroscopic and microscopic methods (saline and wet iodine mount, and formol-ether concentration) while haemoglobin concentration in the blood sample was estimated using hemocue hemoglobin method. A prevalence rate of 8.5% was seen among the children sampled. Hookworm had the highest prevalence of 3.1%, followed by Hymenolepis nana (1.8%). Ascaris lumbricoides had a prevalence of 1.3%, Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.4%). 0.9% showed mixed infection with H. nana and Hookworm. Children within the age group of 4-6years had the highest prevalence rate (60%). Male children had a higher prevalence (4.5%) than female (4.0%). The mean haemoglobin concentration in the healthy subject was 11.82 g/dl, while in infected subjects it was 11.03 g/dl, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The study demonstrated that there was a low prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis among children in Sokoto metropolis. However, the haemoglobin concentrations of infected children were significantly affected by parasitic infection. Low haemoglobin concentration in children can lead to behavioural disturbances as a result of impaired neurological development and reduced scholastic performance. Based on these findings, efforts must be made to create better sanitary and toilet facilities in schools at all times to avoid indiscriminate defecation that could lead to the transmission of helminthic infections.

Author(s) Details

O. F. Ashcroft
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sokoto, Nigeria.

A. E. Ahmad
Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

N. M. Bunza
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Sokoto, Nigeria.

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