Perspectives of Clean Cane Production Techniques and Environmental Sustainability: A Review | Chapter 8 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

Given the importance of sugar to humanity, clean cane production has become a source of concern for both academic and producers alike. Focusing on the largest producing and exporting countries of processed and refined sugarcane is the most appropriate means of understanding the concepts evolving around clean cane production. Climate change has not directly reduced the quantity of clean cane produced due to an increase in use of chemical products in farming for sugar cane, but has negatively affected the quality of output. Disease prevalence in harvested cane as well as high soil erosion from global warming have been key elements of the sudden decline in quality cane harvesting and processing. This decline in quality has not only reduce the amount of revenue accruable to farmers but with the consequence of future production prospect if improperly addressed. This study carried out a desk research methodology to review extant literature to identify contemporary issues that needs to be urgently researched on. While a number of issues were uncovered by this study, it was found that scientific experiments and mathematical models enhance theoretical facts on successful and disease-free clean cane production methods. But due to the practicability exceptions and the inherent limitations in outcomes of experiments, the research stresses on the importance of field work through observations before theoretical assessments on the findings and the causes of disease prevalence and quality decline in output. This is hoped will sanitize the cane production process and output for the present and future generations.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Doorasamy Mishelle

School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

View Book – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/150

Using GIS to Assess the Contribution of Farming Activities towards Climate Change in the State of Mississippi | Chapter 10 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 3

The study uses primary data, descriptive statistics, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and correlation analysis to analyze the contributions of farming activities to climate change in Mississippi between 1992 through 2002. This involved the assessment of methane emissions from rice cultivation in the state of Mississippi as well as the relationship between the levels of methane gas concentration and other variables associated with rice production. In highlighting the extent to which rice production activities fuel climate change, the results of the study not only showed greenhouse gas emission related rice production activities to be on the rise, but there is a relationship between methane emissions and rice farming. The GIS analysis also points to a visible concentration of rice production activities associated with methane emissions in the major counties of Bolivia, Sunflower and Washington along the Northwest portion of the state. While this raises the threats of climate change predictors in the area. To remedy the problems, the paper suggests five future lines of actions from the need for education to the promotion of emission trading.

Author(s) Details

Edmund C. Merem
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Yaw A. Twumasi
Department of Urban Forestry and Natural Resources, Southern University and A&M College, 102 C Fisher Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA.

Joan Wesley
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Emmanuel Nwagboso
Department of Political Science, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch, Jackson MS, 39217, USA.

Siddig Fageir
Department of Criminal Justice and Sociology, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch, Jackson MS, 39217, USA.

Marshand Crisler
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Peter Isokpehi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Duro Olagbegi
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Mohammed Alsarari
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

Coney Romorno
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 W Capitol Street, Jackson MS, 39201, USA.

View Book : http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/131

Reviewing the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Farm Households through Gender Lens | Chapter 09 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of our time. Impact of climate change can be felt in many areas including agriculture. Agriculture is primary occupation of a human being. Among all the human activities, agriculture being the mostly weather dependent is physically and economically more vulnerable to climate change. With climate change looming in the scene, agriculture and livelihoods of the farm-households are also affected. Vulnerability to climate change is determined by many factors of which gender and poverty are important ones. The contribution and significance of women in agriculture and livelihood cannot be undermined. What impact climate change has, how much vulnerable people are and what adaptation and mitigation strategies they adopt varies with gender. The present paper is based on reviews from different journals, papers and secondary data. It reviews the relationship between climate change, agriculture and gender roles & relations. Climate change is found to have negative impact on Brazilian crop. Mortality rate of men during cyclone was found to be more in developed countries while more women in developing countries. In Amhara, women and women headed households were found to be more vulnerable to food insecurity during flood. Women and children were the one who were more affected by rainfall and drought. To cope up with drought most men farmer commit suicide or migrate to cities on the other hand women had to take up odd job like prostitution. During flood women of Bangladesh use sugar to reduce soil salinity, raise cultivable land to save it from water inundation during floods and spring surges as coping strategy. The various cases reviewed in this paper indicates that gender mainstreaming of climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions is the need of the time.

Author(s) Details

Kankabati Kalai
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492 012, India.

Dr. Loukham Devarani
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

Bai Koyu
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

Dr. Nivetina Laitonjam
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/101

Relationships between Climate Parameters and Forest Vegetation at and Near Digya National Park, Ghana | Chapter 12 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 2

This paper evaluates the effect of three climate parameters on forest cover in Ghana and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at Digya National Park derived from Landsat image data. Climate data (temperature, humidity, dewpoint, rainfall) are assembled from statistics provided by Ghana’s Meteorological Agency. The study introduces a weighted averaging method by computing weather information from neighbouring stations.  Also, this research introduces a model of dewpoints, enabling the direct calculation of dewpoints from temperature and humidity data.  The major finding is that while temperature significantly affects forest cover and Park vegetation, dew-points and rainfall do not. The paper suggests where future research may be more fruitful in analyzing the effects of climate on vegetation.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Yaw A. Twumasi
Department of Urban Forestry and Natural Resources, Southern University and A&M College,102C Fisher Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA.

Tommy L. Coleman
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A&M University, P.O. Box 1208, Normal, AL 35762, USA.

Andrew Manu
Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, 1126A Agronomy Hall, Ames,  IA 50011, USA.

Edmund C. Merem
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jackson State University, 101 West Capitol Street, Jackson, MS 39201, USA.

Albert Osei
Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Oakwood University, 7000 Adventist Blvd. Huntsville, AL 35896, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/80/1099/787-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpecc/v2

The Transportation Climate Change Connection | Chapter 07 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The transportation sector consumes more than two-thirds of oil supplies in the United States each year and accounts for approximately one-third of the United States carbon dioxide emissions. A draft of the Fourth U.S. Climate Action Report states that the current United States climate policy will culminate in the emission of 9.2 billion tons of greenhouse gases in 2020, which represents a 19 percent increase from 2000 levels. These higher levels of greenhouse gases contribute to rising temperatures while causing numerous transportation problems as abnormally hot days become more frequent and extreme. Due to the threat of such impacts and the finite supply of oil, myriad players in the transportation industry are researching conservation measures and alternative energy as well as the development of infrastructure and attitudes that promote emission reductions. This research examines a variety of practical and feasible solutions to decreasing greenhouse gases within the transportation sector based on the notion that as a result, new jobs would be created, billions of dollars could be saved, and dependence on foreign oil would diminish leading to greater national security while mitigating climate change.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mary Snow and Dr. Rich Snow
Department of Applied Aviation Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/73/896/686-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crst/v1

Further Evidence of Coal Fly Ash Utilization in Tropospheric Geoengineering: Implications on Human and Environmental Health | Chapter 11 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

We disclose a fourth independent line of evidence, based on the co-precipitation technique, pointing to coal fly ash as the material utilized in tropospheric geoengineering, and describe some of the adverse environmental and public health risks associated with its persistent application. During a snow storm, the fluffy snow traps geoengineering-aerosol-particulates and brings them down with the snow. The results of the ICP-MS analytical measurements of the snow-melt particulates we tested are consistent with three independent lines of evidence that coal fly ash is the main aerosolized particulate used for tropospheric geoengineering. Coal fly ash tropospheric geoengineering inhibits rainfall to change weather/climate which disrupts habitats, including arable habitats. Long periods of artificially induced drought can wreak economic disaster on farmers, and shift the delicate balance in nature, weakening natural defenses and giving a boost to aggressive pathogens. Coal fly ash when exposed to water or body fluids can release a host of toxic chemicals including neuro-toxic aluminum in a chemically mobile form and carcinogens such as arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and the radioactive elements, uranium, thorium and their daughter products. The only safe geoengineering is no geoengineering at all.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Mark Whiteside
Florida Department of Health in Monroe County, 1100 Simonton Street, Key West, FL 33040, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/60/687/547-2
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpecc/v1

Air Pollution, Not Greenhouse Gases: The Principal Cause of Global Warming | Chapter 09 | Current Perspectives to Environment and Climate Change Vol. 1

Aim: Gottschalk demonstrated the bump coincident with World War II is a robust feature showing up in eight independent NOAA temperature databases. Without contradicting Gottschalk’s conclusion, I consider the broader activities of WW2, especially the manner of altering Earth’s delicate energy balance by particulate aerosols and then generalise to post-WW2 global warming. The aim is to present evidence that particulate pollution, not greenhouse gases, is the principal cause of global warming.

Methods: Arrange seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident.

Results: The World War II wartime particulate-pollution, I submit, had the same global-warming consequence as the subsequent ever-increasing global aerosol particulate-pollution from (1) increases in aircraft and vehicular traffic, and the industrialization of China and India with their smokestacks spewing out smoke and coal fly ash and from (2) coal fly ash covertly jet-sprayed into the region where clouds form on a near-daily, near-global basis. Spraying coal fly ash into the atmosphere not only causes global warming by altering Earth’s delicate thermal balance, but it is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and neurodegenerative disease, as well as being involved in the global catastrophic bee and insect die-off and in forest die-offs worldwide, poisoning the biosphere with mercury, and destroying atmospheric ozone that protects us from the sun’s deadly ultraviolet radiation. The continued deliberate pollution of our atmosphere with aerosolised coal fly ash will inevitably cripple our ability to produce food crops and will cause untold death and destruction, for example, by altering Monsoon weather patterns and by exacerbating wildfires.

Conclusion: The main cause of global warming is particulate pollution, not greenhouse gases. Unless atmospheric modification utilising aerosolised coal fly ash is halted, we drive ever-forward toward the first anthropogenic mass extinction of life on Earth.

Author(s) Details

J. Marvin Herndon
Transdyne Corporation, 11044 Red Rock Drive, San Diego, CA 92131, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/60/685/545-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpecc/v1