Traditional Institutions Management: A Case Study of Pasturist Conflicts in Borno State, Nigeria | Chapter 03 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 2

The study was conducted to assess the traditional institutions management: a case study of Pasturist conflict in three selected Local Government Areas (Damboa, Jere and Magumeri LGAs) of Borno state, Nigeria. Muti-stage sampling technique was used to select 225 sample size respondents which include farmers (150) and herders (75) respectively. A structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data for this study which was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and PRA (Pair wise Ranking) tool. The results revealed that (89.3%) of the respondents are of the opinion that, the most preferred strategies for managing conflicts between farmers and herders in the study area are the traditional institutions. Results in Table 2 shows that the farmers ranked the resolution of conflict through the payment of compensation as the first while the herders (Table 3) ranked it second. However, the study recommend that the traditional rulers in conjunction with all the stakeholders at the village level should maintain routine or annual meetings with farmers and herders for the avoidance of conflict between the farmers and herders in the area. Also, traditional institutions should be strengthen through constitutional amendment, thus, to return their power to adjudicate conflict in the rural areas which had been taken away by the 1976 Local Government Reform. The study found that there are existing traditional institutions which are attempting to manage this conflict. The respondents expressed their satisfaction with the performance of the traditional institutions in managing the conflicts between farmers and herders in the localities. However, the results revealed that majority (89.3%) of the respondents are of the opinion that, the most preferred strategies for managing conflicts between farmers and herders in the study area are the traditional institutions. More so, the farmers ranked the resolution of conflict through the payment of compensation as the first, while the herders ranked it second.

Author(s) Details

Makinta, Maina Mohammed
Department of Agriculture, Damboa Local Government, Damboa, Borno State, Nigeria.

Hamisu, Sa’adu
Department of Crop Production Technology, College of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1018, Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria.

Prof Bello, Umar Faruk
Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Umar, Sa’adu
Department of Agricultural Economics & Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Kebbi State University of Science & Technology Aliero, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/cpem/v2

Epidemiology of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region | Chapter 03 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Mental illnesses are complicated and multi-factorial disorders. This chapter of the book was done to determine the epidemiology of mental health problems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). All electronic databases of studies done concerning mental disorders in the EMR (during the period from 1990  to  2019)  were  searched,  scrutinized  and  summarized.  Results  revealed  that  EMR  has higher rates of mental disorders compared to other regions of the world. This finding is mainly due to the unrest situation. The prevalence of mental illnesses in EMR ranged between 15.6% -35.5% (with higher rates in nations with complex emergency circumstances). Mental disorders were associated with 11.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) during the period from 1990-2013. Palestine, Djibouti  and  Somalia  reported  the  highest  DALYs  in  the  region  during  such  period. Regarding mortality,  depression  and  schizophrenia  resulted  in  high  mortality  rates. Studies reported  that vulnerable groups to  mental illnesses  including females,  poor  unmarried  individuals,  elderly, those suffering from chronic illnesses, individuals exposed to conflicts or violations of human rights, and the refugees. Cultures affect mental illnesses in the EMR as stigma attached to mental disorders is one of the  commonest  reasons  for  not  looking  for  mental  care. On  the  other  hand,  studies  illustrated presence  of  inverse  associations  between  religious  level  and  some  mental  illnesses.  Improving mental  health  promotion  programs,  with  scaling  up of  mental  health  services and  addressing  the barriers against receiving mental care are recommended. Decreasing stigma attached to people with mental illnesses is recommended and can be done through mass media, schools, universities, etc. Conflict resolutions and building mental health capacity of the countries with conflicts are needed.

Author(s) Details

Nahla Khamis Ibrahim

Professor at Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia &Professor at Epidemiology Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctmmr/v3