Internal Governance Mechanisms: Evidence from Islamic Banks | Chapter 06 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 4

The impact of institutional corporate governance on the financial performance of Islamic banks, with a specific focus on Shari’ah Supervisory Boards and corporate boards. The findings of this study indicate that Islamic banks with Shari’ah Supervisory Boards outperform Islamic banks without such boards, as measured by return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), asset growth (AG), and interest margins (IM). Further findings of this study indicate that the financial performances of Islamic banks with Shari’ah Supervisory Boards and corporate boards are influenced by several board characteristics, including the size of the board and the education of the board members. Moreover, Shari’ah Supervisory Boards provide tighter monitoring and control, as well as more advising and counseling, as compared with Islamic banks without Shari’ah Supervisory Boards. Later findings indicate that Shari’ah Supervisory Boards’ affiliations with international Islamic financial institutions motivate the positive relationship between the Shari’ah Supervisory Boards and Islamic bank performance. Overall, this study provides strong evidence that Shari’ah Supervisory Boards benefit shareholders by complementing corporate boards and thus mitigating agency problems and agency costs.

Author(s) Details

Majdi Anwar Quttainah
College of Business Administration, University of Kuwait, P.O.Box 5969, Safat – 13060, Kuwait.

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Economic Burden of Diabetic Tuberculosis Patients from 3 Malaysian Hospitals | Chapter 15 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 1

Aim: To assess the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the cost of the tuberculosis (TB) treatment.

Study Design: Prevalence based cohort.

Place and Duration of Study: Penang General Hospital, Hospital USM, and – Univesiti Malaya Medical Center; 2005 – 2008. 

Methods: Study patients were placed in the TB only, DM only, or DM-TB groups, with each group including 200 patients. Information related to demographics, chronic disease comorbidity, duration of hypertension (HTN) and DM, and economic variables were obtained from the patients’ medical files both at the beginning and end of the study period. The economic burden of DM-TB patients was assessed from hospitalization periods, frequency of clinic visits, and diagnostic requests.

Results: Durations of DM and HTN were 9.2 and 5.6 years, respectively, for the DM only group compared to 5.3 and 1.1 years, respectively, for DM-TB subjects. For both diabetic groups, diabetes preceded HTN, with onset of HTN occurring approximately 4 years after patients were diagnosed diabetic. Approximately 86% of DM only subjects suffered additional comorbidity, and 44.5% had three or more coexisting chronic diseases compared to 56% and 11.4%, respectively, in the DM-TB group. The hospitalization period was 10.2 days for the DM-TB group compared to 7 and 4 days for the TB only and DM only groups, respectively; however, 43% of TB only subjects needed surgical intervention compared to 17% in the DM-TB group. The total cost wasRM4530 (US$1234.3) for the DM-TB group compared to RM3082.8 (US$840) and RM6945.26 (US$1892.40) for the TB only and DM only groups, respectively.

Conclusions: DM antedated HTN in our patients. Durations of both DM and HTN were longer for the DM only group. The number of diagnosed chronic diseases and overall treatment cost was higher in the DM-TB group compared to TB only group, but lower compared to the DM only group. The TB only group required the most surgical intervention.

Author(s) Details

Daud M. I. Aweis  
Pharmacy and Medical Supply Division, Ahmadi Hospital, Kuwait Oil Company, Kuwait and School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USM, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

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