Relationship of Apolipoprotein B-100 and Lipid Profile Parameters among Diabetic Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria | Chapter 06 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 2

Diabetic dyslipidaemia is the bane of most complications seen in diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study is to determine the levels of apolipoprotein B-100 among diabetic adults and non-diabetic control; and its relationship with the traditional lipid profile parameters.

A total of 58 subjects including 30 diabetic patients and 28 non-diabetic controls selected from diabetic clinic and immunization centres respectively. Subjects were randomly selected, examined clinically and have their anthropometric parameters measured. Lipid profile was assayed using standard enzymatic spectrophotometric methods while serum apolipoprotein B-100 was measured using sandwich immunoassay technique. Data were expressed in means and standard deviations. Differences in means between the two groups were assessed using Student T-test and relationships tested using Pearson’s correlation study. Mean ages of diabetic and non-diabetic groups were 57.7±7.4 and 49.3± 17.9 years respectively (p>0.05). Statistical differences exist in the age, weight, BMI, and blood pressure between the two study groups. Serum apolipoprotein B-100 in the diabetic and non-diabetic controls were 84.9±58.8 and 67.6±44.3 mg/dl respectively (p<0.05). A weak positive correlation exists between serum apolipoprotein B-100 and haemoglobin A1c (r=0.420; p=0.021) while a strong positive correlation exists between apolipoprotein B-100 and LDL-cholesterol (r=0.702, p=0.001); apolipoprotein B-100 and non-HDL-cholesterol (r=0.690; p=0.001) and apolipoprotein B-100 and total cholesterol (r=0.688; p=0.001).  Elevated apolipoprotein B-100 is a biochemical feature in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. There is a positive relationship between apolipoprotein B-100 and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and nonHDL-cholesterol. We advise the adoption of apolipoprotein B-100 as a routine test in the evaluation of diabetic dyslipidaemia among the diabetic patients.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Tomisin Matthew Adaja
Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Medical Sciences, Laje Campus, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Dr. Matilda Adesuwa O. Ojo
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Medical Sciences, Laje Campus, Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Dr. Clarisee Noel Ayina Ayina
University of Douala, Department of Biology of Animal Organisms, Douala, Cameroon.

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Diabetes Mellitus: Can Stem Cells be the Answer? | Chapter 10 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 2

This review aims to enlighten the readers regarding the past, present and future of stem cells in the treatment of Diabetes. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, affecting more than 415 million people worldwide.  It is estimated that one in ten adults will have diabetes by 2030. Diabetes is mainly due to reduction in β-cell mass which are responsible for insulin production. Exogenous administration of insulin is having good impact on restoring glucose homeostasis, but it does not entirely control the minute-to-minute fluctuations in systemic blood glucose. Recently cellular-based therapies have been established for exogenous insulin administration by modern pump technology. One of the most interesting therapies involves substitution of insulin producing islet cells by transplantation. But lack of donor material and lifelong immunosuppression made the technique unfeasible. These restrictions have led to exploration of other sources of β-cells, one of the prospects being the stem cells. Several types of stem cells have been used to make pancreatic β-cells, including human embryonic stem cells / induced pluripotent stem cells, pancreatic stem / progenitor cells, and non-pancreatic stem cells. There is also evidence of adult β-cells regeneration through β-cell replication and cellular reprogramming. Functional restoration of existing β-cells, transplantation of stem cells or stem cell-derived β-like cells might provide new opportunities for treatment. In conclusion it can be said that the research is still wide open to arrive at the efficient reprogramming of various types of stem cells to destine them towards functional β-cells.

Author(s) Details

M. Senthilnathan
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

A. Ramadevi
Department of Animal Nutrition, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (KVASU), Mannuthy, Kerala, India.

K. Srinivas
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

A. Thangamani
Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

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Detecting Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South Eastern Nigeria: The Role of Adiposity Indices in Relation to Gender | Chapter 16 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 1

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the predicting powers of different adiposity indices on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among adult men and women in Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: Three thousand five hundred adult civil servants (1532 men and 1968 women), aged 18 – 60 years, were assessed for incident T2DM using 2011 Expert Committee Revised criteria for the diagnosis of T2DM.

Results: Incident T2DM was found in 180 (5.4%) participants, 73 men (4.8%) and 116 women (5.9%). Results of comparison between diabetic men and women showed that body mass index (BMI) and mid arm circumference (MAC) did not differ significantly between groups. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratios (WHR) of women with T2DM were significantly higher than those of men with T2DM (WC: P =0.001 and WHR: P=0.034). BMI and MAC had equal predicting powers in both genders with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as follows: BMI (OR=2.41, C.I=1.728 – 7.01 for men and 2.02, 1.51 – 6.402 for women); MAC (OR =1.624, C.I=1.824 – 7.051 for men and 1.51, 1.62 – 6.59 for women); WHR and WC were predictive of T2DM only in women. OR and C.I were as follows: – WHR (OR=2.435, 0.951- 6.413 for women and 0.729, 0.547 – 1.14 for men); WC: (2.834, 1.270 – 5.421 for women and 1.21, 0.695 -1.845 for men) respectively.

Conclusion: All adiposity indices measured were significantly associated with incident T2DM in women, with only BMI and MAC showing significant association with T2DM in men.

Author(s) Details

Christopher E. Ekpenyong
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

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Combined Anti-diabetic Effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua var. Chiknensis (CBGE/CHNA/09/LTNGS/G) and Each of Three Other Plants (Momordica charantia Linn. Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa) Traditionally Used in Nigeria for the Treatment of Diabetes | Chapter 11 | Advances in Applied Science and Technology Vol. 6

The combined anti-diabetic effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua var. chiknensis with Laboratory code number (CBGE/CHINA/09/LTNGS/G), Momordica charantia Linn, Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa traditionally employed in Nigeria for the treatment of diabetes were studied. Fifty male albino rats which had been subjected to overnight fasting were rendered diabetic through single intraperitoneal alloxan injections (120 mg/kg body weight). They were then divided into 5 batches of ten rats each. The first batch was treated with A. annua leaf extract only. The second batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and M. charantia extracts. The third batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and V. amygdalina extracts while the fourth batch was treated with a combination of A. annua and Aegle marmelos extracts. The extracts were used in the ratio of 1:1 and treatment was done twice daily for a period of 30 days. The fifth batch of diabetic rats was not treated and thus served as control. The sixth batch of non-diabetic rats (10) was set up for comparison. Both the A. annua extract and its various combinations with the other experimental plant extracts resulted in insulin level enhancements and fasting blood glucose level reductions of the diabetic rats. There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in the insulin level of diabetic rats treated with A. annua leaf extract alone and those treated with different combinations of the plant extracts. The mean effects of the extracts on insulin and fasting blood glucose levels were most significant in A. annua + M. charantia (38.65 µlU/ml and 87.55 mg/dl) and A. annua + A. marmelos (38.55 µlU/ml and 87.92 mg/dl) treatments at P≤0.05. The non-treated diabetic rats had an average body weight of 94.90 g as compared to the original average body weight of 100 g at the commencement of the study. The treated diabetic rats had average body weight increments from 108.83g to 109.29 g. The non-diabetic rats had an average body weight of 114.10 g as compared to their initial average body weight of 100 g. The experimental plants were found to contain various biochemical constituents which were probably responsible for the blood serum insulin level enhancements and fasting blood glucose level reductions. The results obtained have shown that the A. annua leaf extract and its combinations with the other plant extracts could be employed in the management of hyperglycemia. The results have shown how effective A. annua var. chiknensis extract is in terms of lowering the blood glucose level or in the prevention of hyperglycemia. The results have also revealed that such blood glucose level reduction could be enhanced when the said extract is used in combination with other plant extracts that have similar effects in terms of management of hyperglycemia. It is hoped that new diabetes drugs that stem from the findings can be developed. However, in order to minimize the risk of diabetes cases in Nigeria, both conventional and traditional preventive measures should be considered.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Chike I. C. Ogbonna
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Dr. (Mrs) Abigail. I. Ogbonna
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Research Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

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A Review on Gongronema latifolium, an Extremely Useful Plant with Great Prospects | Chapter 11 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Gongronema latifolium is a plant that has a wide range of nutritional and ethnomedical uses in different tropical African communities. Scientific reports on the chemical composition and bioactivity (anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anticancer and allelopathic properties) of the plant material by different authors are discussed in this review. Future prospects of the plant extracts in the areas of herbal formulations, food preservation, alcoholic fermentation and beer production, drug discovery and allelopathy are also highlighted.

Author  Details:

Olugbenga Morebise

Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, All Saints University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica.

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