Energy Integration to Ensure Effective Generation Supply and Distribution in Ghana Corporation Perspective | Chapter 08 | Theory and Applications of Mathematical Science Vol. 1

Aims: The objectives of the research are to examine the awareness and efficiency of the renewable energy law in Ghana; determine the main source for energy generated by the VRA, GRIDCO, and ECG; determine the distribution gap and find out how effectively these corporations are making use of the other resources to generate electric energy in Ghana.


Study Design: Purposive Sampling technique study design.


Place and Duration of Study: Volta River Authority, Ghana Grid Company, Electricity Company of Ghana, Ghana, between April 2016 and August 2016.


Methodology: We included sampled employees from the Volta River Authority, Ghana Grid Company, Electricity Company of Ghana. A total of 300 employees of the three organizations were selected for the research. The study employed a purposive sampling technique in selecting the employees from the three organizations.


Results: Data collected was analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that all employees are aware of the Renewable Energy Law Act 832 and that it is defined as energy obtained from non-depleting sources such as “Wind energy”, “Solar energy”, “Bio-energy”, “Geothermal energy”, and “Ocean energy”. Also, this study has established that, “hydro power sources”, “thermal energy sources”; and “renewable energy sources” are the main sources of energy generated by the Volta River Authority and also the type of renewable energy currently generated by the Volta River Authority is the solar energy.


Furthermore, the study has been able to establish that the Volta River Authority currently produce between 2100 to 2499 megawatts of electricity but however, there is a distribution gap or shortfall of about 900 to 1299 megawatts of electricity. Finally, findings from the study revealed that other corporations generate about 900 to 1299 megawatts of electricity.


Conclusion: “High-Cost” and “Lack of trust in the technology” are the factors that will prevent the adoption of renewable energy sources. Also, “Lack of budget funding” and “Unavailability of Gas/Crude oil to power plants” are the barriers to improving energy efficiency. It was however recommended that, the government should endeavor to initiate informative programs aimed at promoting renewable energy and provide capital subsidies and make investments through specialized agencies created for the promotion of renewable energy development and for installation of renewable energy.

Author(s) Details

Mr. Francois Mahama
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

Carlos Ankora
Department of Computer Science, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

Noble Kuadey
Department of Computer Science, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

Lily Bensah
Department of Computer Science, Ho Technical University, Ghana.

View Books: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/117

The Transportation Climate Change Connection | Chapter 07 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 1

The transportation sector consumes more than two-thirds of oil supplies in the United States each year and accounts for approximately one-third of the United States carbon dioxide emissions. A draft of the Fourth U.S. Climate Action Report states that the current United States climate policy will culminate in the emission of 9.2 billion tons of greenhouse gases in 2020, which represents a 19 percent increase from 2000 levels. These higher levels of greenhouse gases contribute to rising temperatures while causing numerous transportation problems as abnormally hot days become more frequent and extreme. Due to the threat of such impacts and the finite supply of oil, myriad players in the transportation industry are researching conservation measures and alternative energy as well as the development of infrastructure and attitudes that promote emission reductions. This research examines a variety of practical and feasible solutions to decreasing greenhouse gases within the transportation sector based on the notion that as a result, new jobs would be created, billions of dollars could be saved, and dependence on foreign oil would diminish leading to greater national security while mitigating climate change.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mary Snow and Dr. Rich Snow
Department of Applied Aviation Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/73/896/686-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/crst/v1

Reflections on the Use of Density Functional Theory in the Understanding of the Effects of Moderate Amounts of Sulfur Substitutional Impurities on ZnO | Chapter 06 | New Advances in Materials Science and Engineering Vol. 1

A theoretical study on the effects of a moderate amount of sulfur when used as substituent impurity in place of oxygen in zinc oxide at its crystal form using Density Functional Theory (DFT). S-substituent amounts in percent go from 0.1% up to 1.0% and we analyze modifications in the crystal properties such as lattice characteristics, total energy, and gap energy. Lattice parameter c increased slightly as S-substituent percent increased, lattice parameter a had an opposite behavior because it decreased as the S-substituent increased and c/a rate had ups and downs but with very slight variation between consecutive values. Total energy calculations showed an increasing trend at all times and binding energy showed a decreasing trend at all times as the substituent percent increase but the variation between consecutive points was small. Gap energy had a decreasing trend with a maximum variation of 6.57% at 1.0% S substituent from pristine ZnO. In order to correct the DFT underestimation of gap energy we applied a correction factor and found a decreasing trend as the substituent percent increase and observed the highest difference from undoped ZnO was 1.42% at 1.0% S-substituent. We study the effects on the ZnO structure occurring when moderate S-substituent amounts from 0.1% to 1.0% are used and provide new knowledge to predict if the geometric and electronic structure changes may be suitable for new applications of ZnO in optoelectronics.

Author(s) Details

Manuel Alberto Flores-Hidalgo
Facultad de Ciencias Qu´ımicas, Universidad Ju´arez del Estado de Durango, Durango, Durango 34120, Mexico.

Diana Barraza-Jim´enez
Facultad de Ciencias Qu´ımicas, Universidad Ju´arez del Estado de Durango, Durango, Durango 34120, Mexico.

Daniel Glossman-Mitnik
Laboratorio Virtual NANOCOSMOS, Departamento de Medio Ambiente y Energ´ıa, Centro de Investi- gaci´on en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chih 31136, Mexico.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/66/783/606-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/namse/v1