Pathogenicity of Antibiotic Resistant/Sensitive Bacteria Vibrio spp. and Aeromonas spp. | Chapter 2 | Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Bacterial and viral diseases constitute a major factor limiting the successes of shrimp farming industry. In this context, Identification of drug resistant pathogens and determination of the pathogenic processes of shrimp are fundamental for further progress in the disease management. They could be valuable in the evaluation of their epidemiology and control measures. Water samples from the aquaculture environment were contaminated with Vibrio anguillarum, V. damsela, V. furnissii, Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria. Both Vibrio spp and Aeromonas spp were shown to be pathogenic and to cause mortality to the infected post larval P. monodon. Vibrio spp. were shown to grow in TCBS agar, zobell’s marine agar and blood agar while Aeromonas spp. additionally exhibited growth in blood agar with selective supplement ampicillin (10 µg/ml) and showed a zone of clearance in DNase agar. LD50 values of V. anguillarim, V. damsela, V. funrissii, A. hydrophila and A. sobria to post larval P. monodon were determined as 1.1 x 105, 2.7 x 105, 6.0 x 105, 8.5 x 104, and 7.5 x 104 bacterial cells/ml respectively. Ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the reduction of the mortality of experimentally infected post larvae. The growth of Vibrio spp was inhibited by nifurpirinol (prefuran) at 25 µg/ml, oxytetracycline at 13 µg/ml, erythromycin phosphate at 4 µg/ml, chloramphenicol at 12 µg/ml, streptomycin at 2 µg/ml, and ciprofloxacin at 1 µg/ml. While the growth of Aeromonas spp was inhibited by nifurpirinol (prefuran) at 24 µg/ml, oxytetracycline at 14 µg/ml, erythromycin phosphate at 5 µg/ml, chloramphenicol at 12 µg/ml, streptomycin at 2 µg/ml, and ciprofloxacin at 1 µg/ml. Vibrio spp. was sensitive to o/129 vibriostatic agent (150 µg) whereasAeromonas spp. was resistant to it. The pathogenic bacteria viz. Vibrio spp and Aeromonas spp could be controlled to some extent with judicious use of effective antibiotics to improve the health status of shrimp in culture conditions and can have a positive impact in the areas of sustainable aquaculture environment and development. 

Author(s) Details
P. Ramasamy

Research and Development Wing, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, India. 

D. R. Gunasekaran
Research and Development Wing, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, India. 

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Roadside Heavy Metals in Soil and Plants | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 3

Heavy metal concentration in roadside soil and plants are increasingly becoming of health concern. Especially with the continue increase in anthropogenic activities such as industries and urbanization which releases pollutants in to the environment without control and effects remedies. Heavy metal is any metal that is toxic regardless of their density or atomic mass. Heavy metals occur naturally in the soil environment from the pedogenetic processes of weathering of parent materials and from anthropogenic sources such as traffic emission, industrial and energy production, waste disposal, vehicle exhaust as well as coal and fuel combustion. Among the numerous environmental pollutants, heavy metals plays an important role as its concentrations in air, soil and water are continuously increasing due to anthropogenic activities. To determine heavy metals in roadside soil and plants, Hong major road in Adamawa State, Nigeria was taken as a case study. The concentration of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu) in roadside soils and plants samples from selected sites (Plaifu, Shiwa, Fadama-rake and Damdrai) along major road in Hong were determined. Soil samples were taken 10 m, 20 m and 30 m away from the edge of the road at the depth of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Plant samples were randomly collected within the vicinity where the soil samples were taken and were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result revealed the trend in soil heavy metal concentration was Fe > Mn > Mg > Pb > Zn > Ni > Co > Cu > Cr > Cd and for plant the trend was Fe > Mn > Mg > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Co > Cr. The concentrations decreased with increasing distance away from the edge of the road as well as with depth at which the soil sample were taken. The transfer factor showed that the concentration of Zn, Mn, Cu and Mg were greater than 1, which shows that plant were enriched by Zn, Mn, Cu and Mg from the soil. Mg and Cd equal to 1 at Plaifu and Damdrai. Most of the values of TF at the study area super pass 0.5, which implies that generally, the ability of bioaccumulation of these heavy metals in examined plants were relatively high.

Author(s) Details

Nachana’a Timothy
Department of Chemistry, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

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