Detailed Study on Translation: Students to Translate Environmental Expressions at Jadara University in Jordan | Chapter 7 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 4

This paper has coped with Environmental Sentences and Expressions (ESE). It aims at investigating the ability of translation students in translating the ESE at Jadara University in Jordan. Based on a practical study, a sample of 20 translation students was chosen randomly from the English Department, nine of them are urban, while eleven students are rural. For achieving the purpose of this paper and to collect data, a test of 25 environmental items was set up; the validity and the reliability were verified by a panel of judges at Jadara and Yarmouk Universities. Quantitatively, the researcher used SPSS to analyze data. Frequencies and percentages as a statistic method used to examine students’ ability in translating environmental terms and expressions. To know the differences between urban and rural students, T-test was used as another statistic method. The results of the study showed a poor level in translating environmental expressions. The results also revealed no significant differences between urban and rural students. In light of the study’s findings, it was recommended for issuing environmental course as an elective course for English students, and as a compulsory for translation students. Finally, some suggestions for further researches were written.

Author(s) Details –

Mohammad Alshehab
Jadara University, Jordan.

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Ecotourism Attitudes, Adaptations and Impacts | Book Publisher International

Ecotourism or nature tourism is defined as travel to ecologically interesting places to support conservation efforts and observe wilderness, wildlife, and local societies without causing any adverse impacts. It is designed to stimulate an interest in, develop an understanding of, and create an appreciation for the natural wonders of Earth while stressing environmental awareness, nature interpretation, and wildlife conservation. Ecotourists tend to be mindful of the detrimental effects of human visitation to wildlife habitats. However, they recognize the positive influence environmentally sensitive tourism can have by creating a sustainable economic alternative to natural resource exploitation. This study examines the attitudes toward ecotourism, the ways indigenous people have adapted to ecotourism, as well as the positive and negative impacts of ecotourism.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Mary Snow and Dr. Rich Snow
Department of Applied Aviation Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA.

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First Detection of Ketoreductase in the Genome of Potentially Pathogenic Fast-Growing Environmental Mycobacteria Isolated in Ivory Coast | Chapter 04 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 3

Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU), skin disease, is considered to be an environmental pathogen. The pathogenic virulence of MU is being linked to the expression of toxin called Mycolactone. The ketoreductase (KR) gene, is one of the synthesis genes of mycolactone enzymes previously found in M. ulcerans. Genetic analyses using variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) have shown high diversity in M. ulcerans and in mycolactone producing Mycobacteria (MPMs).

Aim: The purpose of this study is to detect ketoreductase gene in the genome of environmental mycobacteria strain, apart the M. ulcerans, from aquatic environments in Côte d’Ivoire.

Place and Duration of the Study: The analysis of the samples took place in the laboratories of Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire in Abidjan City between June 2014 and December 2015. Sampling was done in some hypoendemic and hyperendemic sites of Buruli Ulcer of Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: A total of 473 samples were collected comprising of 251 waters and 222 sediments based on sampling sites. PCR diagnostics using IS2404 and KR were performed on strains.

Results: 20% fast growing isolated mycobacteria species including Mycobacterium mucogenicum, Mycobacterium peregrinum and Mycobacterium sp. was found carrying the IS2404 gene previously found in M. ulcerans. 9.23% of strains carried the ketoreductase (KR) genes, one of the synthesis of mycolactone enzyme.

Conclusion: The results of this study proved the existence of ketoreductase (KR) genes in rapidly- growing mycobacteria. This study is one of the steps taken in order to understand different skin infections encountered in Côte d’Ivoire. Cutaneous ulceration is a public health problem in Côte d’Ivoire. This work showed a probable involvement of non ulcerans mycobacteria in the spread of this disease. Investigations must therefore continue in order to confirm this observation in clinical practice. All of which could help to determine the likely prevalence of skin ulcers due to Mycobacterium other than M. ulcerans to better adapt treatment in Côte d’Ivoire. This study will help to better diagnose patients suffering from skin infections other than Buruli ulcer and to consider strategies and means of protection of the population against all mycobacterioses by breaking the epidemiological chain.

Author  Details:

Dr Sabine N’Dri Vakou

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and University Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cocody, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Dr. David Coulibaly N’Golo

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Djaman Allico Joseph

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and University Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cocody, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

Professor Dosso Mireille

Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, 01 BP 490 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and University Felix Houphouet-Boigny of Cocody, BPV 34 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

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