Knowledge and Awareness of Anthrax among the Community People at High, Medium and Low Risk Areas of Bangladesh | Chapter 04 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess information about the awareness, attitudes and management practice towards Anthrax. Administrative areas of Bangladesh had been classified as high, medium, and low risk anthrax areas by assessing the risk of anthrax from reports published in daily newspapers and journals. The selected high, medium and low risk areas were Kushtia, Pabna and Mymensingh, respectively. The animal owners and family members, butchers, affected people by cutaneous anthrax were considered as the key informants. Data of management practice including feeding, awareness of zoonosis; vaccination and formal education were collected using interview-questionnaire method. A total data of 622 was collected and uploaded to the data collection tools “Magpi” and the data analysis was carried out using Epi Info™. We found a great worry about educational status in our study sites. Among the interviewers, we found about Half of people had no formal education (46.46%, 289/622). Farmers in the high risk districts significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from medium-(p=0.000) and low-(p=0.000) risk districts. Knowledge of zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination of Anthrax were also very poor among the people from low and medium risk areas. For treatment purpose, most of the farmers (about 98%) of high and low risk areas depend on village doctors. We also found that Improper washing of grass-(p=0.000) and flood-(p=0.000) were significantly responsible for Anthrax outbreaks. Finally we suggest, proper washing of grass, increase awareness towards zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination, proper treatment by veterinarian should be insured to reduce Anthrax outbreak in Bangladesh.

Author(s) Details

K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

Md. Ariful Islam
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

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Histo-Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer in Cameroon: About 110 Cases | Chapter 03 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 3

Objectives: To describe the epidemiological and histopathological aspects of kidney cancer in Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study on malignant tumors of the kidney examined in the anatomical pathology laboratories of five regions (Center, Littoral, West, South-west and North-west), over a period of 12 years (2004-2015). The studied parameters were: frequency, age, sex, histological type.

Results: A total of 110 cases of kidney cancer were collected, representing 8.55% of malignant urogenital tumors. The mean age of patients was 28.72±24.79 years (extremes: 4 months – 76 years). Females are relatively more affected than males (56 cases, 50.91%), with female-to-male ratio of 1.04:1. A total of 58 (52.73%) cases of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 46 (41.82%) cases of nephroblastomas (NB) and 3 (2.73%) of soft tissue tumors were identified.

Conclusion: Kidney cancer is the third urogenital cancer in Cameroon characterized by a relative female predominance with renal cell carcinoma as the predominant histological type. Kidney cancer is the third urogenital cancer in Cameroon characterized by a relative female predominance with renal cell cancer as the predominant histological type. The fight against smoking, the prevention of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes are among the key elements that can help for the decrease in the prevalence of this pathology. It should be noted that the effective initiation of cancer registries is still essential to master the epidemiological data, foundation for a better coordination and prevention of the anti-cancer fight.

Author(s) Details

J. P. Ndamba Engbang
Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
Laquintinie Hospital of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
North-Ossetian State Medical Academy, Vladikavkaz, Russia.

B. Sala
Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.
Laquintinie Hospital of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

C. Fonkwa
Laquintinie Hospital of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

Y. Ligan
Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

B. Djougmo Djimeli
Laquintinie Hospital of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

G. Simo
Bio-Medical and Cancer Center of Bafoussam, Bafoussam, Cameroon.

A. Moune
Anapathos Laboratory, Douala, Cameroon.

A. Fewou
Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon.

J. L. Oyono Essame
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Yaounde University Health Center, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

A. Hasigov
North-Ossetian State Medical Academy, Vladikavkaz, Russia.

A. Ephiev
North-Ossetian State Medical Academy, Vladikavkaz, Russia.

View Books: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/112

Computations of the Eight Basic Measures in Diagnostic Testing | Chapter 06 | Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 2

Diagnostic testing concerning categorical or dichotomized variables is ubiquitous in many fields including, in particular, the field of clinical or epidemiological testing. Typically, results are aggregated in two-by-two contingency-table format, from which a surprisingly huge number of indicators or measures are obtained. In this chapter, we study the eight most prominent such measures, using their medical context. Each of these measures is given as a conditional probability as well as a quotient of certain natural frequencies. Despite its fundamental theoretical importance, the conditional probability interpretation does not seem to be appealing to medical students and practitioners. This paper attempts a partial remedy of this situation by visually representing conditional probability formulas first in terms of two-variable Karnaugh maps and later in terms of simplified acyclic (Mason) Signal Flow Graph (SFGs), resembling those used in digital communications or DNA replication. These graphs can be used, among other things, as parallels to trinomial graphs that function as a generative model for the ternary problems of conditional probabilities, which were earlier envisioned by Pedro Huerta and coworkers. The arithmetic or algebraic reading or solving of a typical conditional-probability problem is facilitated and guided by embedding the problem on the SFG that parallels a trinomial graph. Potential extensions of this work include utilization of more powerful features of SFGs, interrelations with Bayesian Networks, and reformulation via Boolean-based probability methods.

Author(s) Details

Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi
Department of  Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Fayez Ahmad Talmees
Department of  Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O.Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/69/827/634-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/amacs/v2

Epidemiology of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region | Chapter 03 | Current Trends in Medicine and Medical Research Vol. 3

Mental illnesses are complicated and multi-factorial disorders. This chapter of the book was done to determine the epidemiology of mental health problems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). All electronic databases of studies done concerning mental disorders in the EMR (during the period from 1990  to  2019)  were  searched,  scrutinized  and  summarized.  Results  revealed  that  EMR  has higher rates of mental disorders compared to other regions of the world. This finding is mainly due to the unrest situation. The prevalence of mental illnesses in EMR ranged between 15.6% -35.5% (with higher rates in nations with complex emergency circumstances). Mental disorders were associated with 11.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) during the period from 1990-2013. Palestine, Djibouti  and  Somalia  reported  the  highest  DALYs  in  the  region  during  such  period. Regarding mortality,  depression  and  schizophrenia  resulted  in  high  mortality  rates. Studies reported  that vulnerable groups to  mental illnesses  including females,  poor  unmarried  individuals,  elderly, those suffering from chronic illnesses, individuals exposed to conflicts or violations of human rights, and the refugees. Cultures affect mental illnesses in the EMR as stigma attached to mental disorders is one of the  commonest  reasons  for  not  looking  for  mental  care. On  the  other  hand,  studies  illustrated presence  of  inverse  associations  between  religious  level  and  some  mental  illnesses.  Improving mental  health  promotion  programs,  with  scaling  up of  mental  health  services and  addressing  the barriers against receiving mental care are recommended. Decreasing stigma attached to people with mental illnesses is recommended and can be done through mass media, schools, universities, etc. Conflict resolutions and building mental health capacity of the countries with conflicts are needed.

Author(s) Details

Nahla Khamis Ibrahim

Professor at Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia &Professor at Epidemiology Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/42/168/313-1

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctmmr/v3