Three Dimensional Velocity Distribution Modelling of Nun River in Nigeria | Chapter 04 | Emerging Issues in Science and Technology Vol. 2

In this study, hydrodynamics and sediment concentration equations of partial differential in 3-dimensions were solved using finite difference methods, the Crank Nicolson procedure to predict both sediment concentration and velocity profile of Nun River. The computer software (EKU2.8) which is a modification of the Navier Stoke’s equations was employed for discretization of Nun River stretch of 2,000 m into 2,245 rectangular meshes and simulation of the river’s flow velocity distribution. The code was validated by using the field water current measurements obtained from a selected stretch of the river. Average predicted velocities of 0.85 m/s, 1.542 m/s and 0m/s compared favorably with 0.8m/s, 1.475 m/s and 0.09m/s obtained from field measurement for upstream, midstream and downstream boundaries. The predicted results have approximate correlation coefficients of 0.96 for velocity distribution using Pearson product-moment method. The model proved very useful in predicting the velocity distribution of Nun River; higher versus lower velocities at inner and outer bends, with resultant effect of erosion and sediment deposition accordingly. The result of this study may be considered an important contribution to the improvement of sediment and erosion risk management.

Author(s) Details

Desmond U. Nwoko
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Charles C. Dike
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Riparian Buffer Strip Width Design in Semiarid Watershed Brazilian | Chapter 09 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

The use of riparian areas as water quality management tools, primarily derived from the studies of agricultural watersheds, where low phosphorus and large nitrate reductions in the suspended sediment are observed. A riparian strip performs many key functions, such as nutrient uptake, trapping of sediment or pesticides. Therefore, a number of different forms of protection strips have been applied in the field according to relief, steepness and location for use. Studies assessing technologies to design riparian strips using plant covers, based on sediment yield in river basins, are required for environmental protection. The removal of semi-shrubby, native vegetation in the Brazilian semiarid region, has contributed to the degradation of semiarid basins. The aim of this study was to design a riparian strip for the Jacu River in the semiarid region of Pernambuco as a function of sediment yield. Experiments were conducted during the years 2008-2011 in the Jacu River basin at Serra Talhada, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The sediment yield in the Jacu River channel was obtained by measuring suspended and background solid discharge. The riparian strip width estimated in the riparian areas of the Jacu River basin was 15 m. It was concluded that for this study, the sediment yield time and observation of hydrological data were important factors for determining the riparian strip width with greater security.

Author  Details:

Mr. Victor Piscoya

Department of Rural Technology-Environmental Engineering, Rural Federal of Pernambuco University (UFRPE), Recife-PE, Brazil.

Professor V. P. Singh

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2117, USA.

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