Cultivation of Mint (Mentha x gracilis) in Agroforestry System | Chapter 11 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

Aims: The cultivation of medicinal plants in intercropping with other species of agricultural use has been an alternative to make production sustainable in family farming. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth, biomass production, and chemical composition of the essential oil of mint (Mentha x gracilis Sole) in intercropping with fruit species in an agroforestry system. This study was conducted as an important contribution to agroforestry management practices and to assist in deciding which intercropping option to use in this cultivation system. In particular, this information should facilitate the establishment of scientific intercropping systems, help maintain the sustainable use of agroforestry and provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture. Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments, mint inter planted with citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), bananas (Musa spp.), blackberries (Morus nigra), or Barbados cherries (Malpighia glabra). Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the agroforestry located in the sector of Olericultura of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR), Brazil, in the period between November 2015 to February 2017. Methodology: We analyzed physiological and growth variables as light intensity, relative chlorophyll index, height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, essential oil content, oil production and chemical composition of mint in agroforestry. Results: The highest production of biomass  (252.50; 249.31 g planta-1)  and essential oil (135.42; 141.63 L ha-1) were obtained in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, respectively, possibly due to the edaphic climatic conditions, such as greater light intensity, that favored the growth, production and chemical composition of the mint essential oil. Bananas and blackberries intercropped with mint were not beneficial for the growth and production of essential oils. Conclusion: The intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries resulted in higher growth, biomass accumulation and essential oil content and production. The major components of the essential oils were linalool (48.66; 49.87%) and carvone (18.30; 17.86%) with higher percentages in the intercropping of mint with citrus and Barbados cherries, respectively. The cultivation of mint by intercropping with fruit species such as citrus and Barbados cherries is an option to diversify the production of medicinal plants, making it sustainable.

Author(s) Details

Dalva Paulus
Department of Agronomy, Federal University of Technology – Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos, 85660-000, Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil.

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Aromatic Effectiveness for the Elderly at Day Care Service Center: Toward Regional Vitalization Using the Wastes | Chapter 12 | Trends in Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol. 1

Objective of study was to find out a beneficially recycling of the thinned and chopped woods massively produced in mountainous regions Japan. Essential oil extraction was one of the effective approaches to overcome its issues. Materials from Crytomeric japonia, Lindera umbellata, Thujopsis dolabrata and Anise magnolia chips was applied for oil extraction by steam distillation and was chemically analyzed by Gas Chromatography. Preclinical studies of the essential oil were done with a support of the elderly commuting to the Day Care Service Center. Test room was created with the forest pictures, bird singing and water flowing sound as back ground music. Essential oil-flavored test was done to know the elderly preference using the questionnaire test. The most favorite flavor by the elderly was Lindera umbellata due to make them refreshing. But they selected Thujopsis dolabrata flavor instead of Lindera umbellata, when changing the napkin. It implies that “Different flavor for Different situation”. Based on these results the flavored-napkin with antibacteria potency is a potential candidate to develop for the aged along with well-being and amenity life. 

Author(s) Details

Nagai Katsuto
Shirakami Aroma Institute (Limited Liability Company), 88-2 KamiKamuro, Hitotsumori, Ajigasawa, Aomori 038-2723, Japan.

Sasaki Jin-Ichi

Aomori University of Health and Welfare, 58-1 Mase, Hamadate, Aomori 030-8505, Japan.

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Effect of Lead (Pb) on in vitro Shoots Essential Oil Constituents of Jatropha curcas L. | Chapter 11 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Essential oil chemical constituents of Jatropha curcas were analyzed for the effect of lead (Pb) on in vitro shoots. A total of 36 and 30 compounds obtained from in vitro and Pb treated shoots. The four compounds were α-copaene, β-bourbonene, T-muurolol and lauric acid increased parentage in Pb treated in vitro shoots. Lead treated in vitro shoots resulted in production of 21 new compounds and increased percentage of fatty acid, alkanes and aldehyde. 

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ravi Mahalakshmi
Plant Tissue Culture and Bioprospecting Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Meta Procambial Biotech Private Limited, P. Thanneer Pandal Palayam, Peria Semour P.O, Erode- 638 004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Palanisami Eganathan
Plant Tissue Culture and Bioprospecting Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Meta Procambial Biotech Private Limited, P. Thanneer Pandal Palayam, Peria Semour P.O, Erode- 638 004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr. Ajay Kumar Parida
Plant Molecular Biology Laboratory, M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Institutional Area, Taramani, Chennai- 600113, India and Institute of Life Sciences (ILS), NALCO Square, Bhubaneswar- 751023, Odisha, India.

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Identification of the Essential Oils from Annona senégalensis Pers. Sous-espèce Oulotricha Le Thomas (Annonaceae) | Chapter 07 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Annona senegalensis Pers., Oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), is an evergreen shrub that is used for ethnomedicinal purposes and as a source of food. The chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves, stems bark, roots bark, epicarp and mesocarp of these plant, growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3-97.7%), dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (21.8-88.3%), with elemol (13.2-35.0%), β-and γ-eudesmols (3.7-58.3%) as characteristic components. The essential oils from roots and stems bark is distinguished by its high content in diterpenes (17.1 and 11.9% of the total), while the seeds presents a significant amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons (25.8%) with α-pinene (6.2%) and β-phellandrene (11.5%) as major components accompanied by two oxygenated monoterpenes : bornyle acetate (4.5%) and smallest of 1,8-cineole. However, in the epicarp oil, the presence of about 5.8% of oxygenated monoterpenes as terpinen-4-ol and bornyle acetate in comparable rates (1.7%) was noted. The mesocarp oil is exclusively rich in aliphatic fatty acids (35.8%) which is absent in the other organs, but represented by lauric acid (18.0%), hexadecanoïc acid (8.6%), myristic acid (7.2%) and oleic acid (2.0%). Results were compared with same species collected in the democratic republic of Congo and in Cameroon essentially dominated by monoterpenes (84.2 and 87.6%).

Author(s) Details

Nkounkou-Loumpangou Célestine
Unit of Chemistry of Plant and of the Life, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, B.P. 69, Brazzaville, Congo.

Gouollaly Tsiba1, Mahmout Yaya
Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances, Faculty of Exact and Applied Sciences, University of N’Djamena, BP 1117, N’Djamena, Chad.

Elouma Ndinga Arnold Murphy
Unit of Chemistry of Plant and of the Life, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, B.P. 69, Brazzaville, Congo.

Ouamba Jean-Maurille
Unit of Chemistry of Plant and of the Life, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Marien Ngouabi University, B.P. 69, Brazzaville, Congo.

Chalchat Jean Claude
Heterocycle Chemistry Laboratory, Carbohydrate Chemistry, Essential Oil Chemistry, Blaise Pascal University. 4, avenue des Landais, Campus des Cézeaux, 63177, Aubière, France.

Figuérédo Gilles
Laboratory of Analysis of Plant Extracts and Flavors, Blaise Pascal University, 4, avenue des Landais, Campus des Cézeaux, 63177, Aubière, France.

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Chemical Composition and Ovicidal, Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activity of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil against Anopheles gambiae. (Diptera: Culicidae) | Chapter 09 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Background: Malaria remains a serious Public Health threat in the sub-Saharan regions. Although Anopheles gambiae (main malaria vector) has developed resistance against commonly used insecticides, the emergence of this resistance as well as the pollution of the environment by these chemicals have led to the use of plant-derived products such as essential oils.

Aim: This study aimed to characterize and investigate in laboratory bioassays the ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activities of Ocimum basilicum essential oil against aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Cameroon.

Methods: Essential oils of O. basilicum fresh leaves were extracted by hydro-distillation, characterized by gas chromatography coupling mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested against An. gambiae eggs, larvae and pupal stages in laboratory bioassays.

Results: With an overall yield of 0.31% (w/w), the essential oil of O. basilicum fresh leaves revealed the presence of 29 compounds by GC-MS. Monoterpenes were the main group of compounds found with 1-8 Cineol (33.9%), β-Pinene 16.09%), Terpineol (11.21%) and α-Pinene (5.65%) as the main ingredients. These compounds demonstrated an efficient toxic effect against the aquatic stages of An. gambiae with no egg hatching after 24 hours exposure at >30 ppm. The LC50 values of the essential oil were respectively obtained one-hour and 24-hours post-exposure for first (29.41 and 24.7 ppm), second (34.7 and 17.6 ppm), third (34.7 and 20 ppm) and fourth (45.29 and 23.5 ppm) instars larvae and the pupal stage (45.88 and 36.47 ppm) of An. gambiae.

Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum demonstrated a good efficacy against the aquatic stages of An. gambiae and could be suitable for use in mosquito control programme for a Public Health purposes.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Foko Dadji Gisele Aurelie
Laboratory of Zoology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé I, P.O.Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Prof. Tamese Joseph Lebel
Laboratory of Zoology, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé I, P.O.Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

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