Developments in Gari Production | Chapter 04 | Research and Development in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 on the Sensory Attributes and Proximate Composition of gari made from Manihot esculentum Crantz.

Study Design: Freshly harvested mature cassava was peeled and grated. This was further divided into two equal parts to represent samples (W) and (Wo). Sample (W) was inoculated with pure strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 1, while sample (Wo) was not inoculated. The two samples of dough were poured into different jute bags and allowed for 96 hrs to ferment and dehydrate. The resulting dough was sieved and roasted for 30 minutes.

Methodology: Sensory attributes were evaluated using the Hedonic Rule which involved a panel of seven judges, while proximate composition of gari samples was determined using standard methods. The data obtained were analysed using T-test.

Results: The results from this study showed that the score for the sensory attributes for sample (W) was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to sample (Wo). On the other hand, the proximate analysis showed that moisture content, ash, fat, protein and fibre were significantly higher (P<0.05) in sample (Wo) compared to sample (W).

Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be deduced that using L. plantarum 1 in cassava fermentation improved all sensory attributes evaluated in this study. In addition, the study further revealed that traditional fermentation yielded gari with higher nutritional values.

Author(s) Details

O. Oda
Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria.

O. Ewa
Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

M. R. Karimah
Department of Biological Sciences, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria.

Victoria Ayuba
National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA), Abuja, Nigeria.

U. I. Ude
Department of Microbiology, Gregory University, Uturu, Nigeria.

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The Use of Streptomyces capoamus Isolated from Caatinga in the Production and Characterization of Microbial Endoglucanase | Chapter 05 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 3

Cellulases are hydrolases of great importance to industries, especially due to their ability to produce ethanol via hydrolysis of cellulolytic materials. Actinomycetes are the producers of these enzymes, particularly the genus Streptomyces sp. The present study is the first report on the production and characterization of cellulolytic complex secreted by Streptomyces capoamus, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Caatinga. In selecting the microbial producers of cellulolytic complex in qualitative tests, 171 x micro organism showed the most expressive enzymatic index. Regarding the production time of the complex, fermentation was done for 7 days, with aliquots being taken every 24 h. Peak production was obtained during 48 h fermentation. It was done at 37°C and under an agitation of 180 rpm. It was noted also that the 171x micro-organism produced the enzyme in greater quantity. The experiment was done with the most significant actinomycetes (171x), optimal substrate concentration (carboximeticellulose), cultivation temperature and pH of initial output. The results showed that a higher cellulolytic complex was obtained with 2% substrate, 45°C temperature and initial pH 4.0. The microorganism was identified at genus level by microculture method; and with molecular identification method, it was identified as S. capoamus UFPEDA-3410. In optimal culture conditions, this strain produced 0.309 U/mL cellulose, a good production for a thermostable endoglucanase stable in a broad range of pH and stable temperature. It has potential applications in a wide range of industries. Industrial processes are generally carried out at elevated temperatures. Therefore enzymes with a high optima temperature and stability are desired for such applications.

Author(s) Details

Rafael Lopes e Oliveira
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Technology, Chemical Engineering Course, School of Technology, State University of Amazonas, CEP 69050-020, Manaus-AM, Brazil.
Multidisciplinary Support Center, Federal University of Amazonas, CEP 69077-000, Manaus-AM, Brazil.

Camila Beatriz Atanásio Borba
Department of Antibiotics, Biological Sciences Center, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, CEP 50670-901, Recife-PE, Brazil.

Sergio Duvoisin Junior
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Technology, Chemical Engineering Course, School of Technology, State University of Amazonas, CEP 69050-020, Manaus-AM, Brazil.

Patricia Melchionna Albuquerque
Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Technology, Chemical Engineering Course, School of Technology, State University of Amazonas, CEP 69050-020, Manaus-AM, Brazil.
Graduate Program in Biotechnology and Natural Resources, School of Health Sciences, State University of Amazonas, CEP 69065-001, Manaus-AM, Brazil.

Norma Buarque de Gusmão
Department of Antibiotics, Biological Sciences Center, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, CEP 50670-901, Recife-PE, Brazil.

Edmar Vaz de Andrade
Multidisciplinary Support Center, Federal University of Amazonas, CEP 69077-000, Manaus-AM, Brazil.

Leonor Alves de Oliveira da Silva
Multidisciplinary Support Center, Federal University of Amazonas, CEP 69077-000, Manaus-AM, Brazil.
Department of Antibiotics, Biological Sciences Center, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, CEP 50670-901, Recife-PE, Brazil.

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Microbiological Profile of ‘Ogiri’ Condiment Made from Seeds of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) | Chapter 03 | Current Trends in Food Science Vol. 1

Introduction: Condiments are essential part of the diet of various cultures in different parts of the world. Its consumption continues to increase due to some factors that include population growth and increased consumer preferences. A condiment refers to a substance that is added to food to impact a particular desired flavour or texture to the dish. ‘Ogiri’ refers to a fermented oily paste that is used as soup condiments for its strong smell. It is a product prepared by traditional method of uncontrolled solid state fermentation of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and/or melon seeds (Citrullus vulgaris), involving the use of natural inoculation or chance fermentation.

Aim: This research work was conducted to evaluate the microbiological profile of ‘ogiri’ condiment made from the seeds of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

Study Design: This work was a laboratory experimental design study.

Place and Duration of Study: Dept. of Microbiology (Food and Industrial unit), Nasarawa State University, Keffi, between March and April, 2017.

Methodology: Traditional method of ‘ogiri’ production was adopted to prepare the sample in replicates to facilitate the 24-hourly microbiological evaluations. Microbial isolation and identification were done using standard microbiological techniques. Also, laboratory-controlled fermentation was carried out using the isolates obtained from traditional fermentation as starter- cultures.

Results: The result of the traditional fermentation of the watermelon seeds yielded an oily brownish paste that has a strong characteristic pungent aroma. The result of the microbial enumeration showed that bacteria were present throughout the period of fermentation in an increasing population that ranged from 32×101 cfu/g at the starting time (Day 0) to 288 x106 cfu/g at the end of the fermentation period (Day 5). There was no fungal growth at the beginning of the fermentation, till on Day1 (8×103 cfu/g) to the Day 5 (6×106 cfu/g). The isolation of the coliform group of bacteria showed an unusual growth pattern: no coliform isolated from the freshly boiled seeds, coliform was present at Day 1 and 2, and no isolation of coliform bacteria from Day 3 to the end of the fermentation period (Day 5). Over the 5-day period of fermentation, the organisms isolated and identified are Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Lactobacillus fermenti, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, coliform bacteria, yeast and mould.

Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that ‘ogiri’ condiment can be made from watermelon seeds, using Lactobacillus fermenti, Corynebacterium xerosis and/or Bacillus subtilis as starter cultures. The results obtained from the study have shown the prevalence of bacteria throughout the period of fermentation in an increasing population. Fungi and coliform group of bacteria were not isolated at the beginning of the experiment till after 24 hour of commencing the fermentation process. Filamentous fungi (mould) growth was obtained only after the fifth day of fermentation, thereby suggesting it to be spoilage growth. Bacillus spp. was isolated throughout the fermentation period, thereby proving to be major fermentative organisms. The result of the laboratory-controlled fermentation confirmed that ‘ogiri’ condiment could be obtained with Lactobacillus fermenti, Corynebacterium xerosis and/or Bacillus subtilis starter cultures. However, it is recommended that the products of this study should be further assessed for any possible toxicology study before it can be wholly acceptable for human consumption.

Author(s) Details

F. O. Adebayo
Department of Microbiology (Food and Industrial Unit), Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

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Bioconversion of Sweet Potato Leaves to Animal Feed | Chapter 07 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 4

Background: High cost of conventional animal feed ingredients in Nigeria has made it necessary to search for alternative local sources of feed. Crop residues including sweet potato leaves abound in Nigeria. These have been explored as feed sources. The ability of microorganisms to convert agricultural wastes to more useful products could be harnessed to produce feed from sweet potato leaves which can be obtained in high abundance at low cost.

Aim: To examine the possibility of converting sweet potato leaves to animal feed through fermentation with a co-culture of Chaetomium globosum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Materials and Methods: Triplicate samples of sweet potato leaves were fermented with a co-culture of C. globosum and S. cerevisiae for 21 days at 25±2°C and the effects of fermentation on nutrient composition was determined. Fermentation and control samples were analysed for proximate, amino acids, and elemental contents. Acute oral toxicity of the fermented leaves was determined by the fixed dose method using mice and rats. Feed value of the fermented sweet potato leaves for mice was determined. Parameters assessed included feed intake, protein intake, weight gains, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio.

Results: Crude protein, crude fat and ash contents increased by 97.5%, 265.3% and 12.3%, respectively, while crude fibre and nitrogen free extract values decreased by 22.7% and 61.4% respectively. Energy content increased by 14.5%. The observed changes in the values of these nutritional components were significant (P < .05). The percentage dry matter values of all the amino acids analyzed (lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine tyrosine and phenylalanine) were found to increase, with the contents of seven of the amino acids increasing significantly. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents increased significantly while those of copper and iron decreased. The fermented leaves were found to be non toxic to mice and rats. Sole use of fermented sweet potato leaves by the mice led to depression in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Mice fed with commercial mice feed supplemented  with 5% fermented sweet potato leaves had higher weight gains, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratios than those fed on the commercial mice feed.

Conclusion: Fermentation of sweet potato leaves with a co-culture of C. globosum and S. cerevisiae improved the nutritional value of the leaves. Fermented sweet potato leaves can be included in mice feed up to 5% without negative effects. Sole use of fermented sweet potato leaves as feed for mice and possibly other animals would require mineral supplementation, energy enhancement, and further crude fibre reduction.

Author(s) Details

Isaac A. Onyimba
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.

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