This paper tries to provide a prototype for cost estimation with fuzzification and ANN, which is a propositional calculus based on functional point of the training data set. These kind of solutions are regardless of mathematical views of the problem and it is useful for such case which does not have precise inputs, for instance in software cost estimation. There are methods in four major categories such as algorithmic COCOMO-II (Constructive Cost Model) model, functional point, analogy, expert judgment, top down and bottom down method which have their own pros and cons. Their merits will be discussed in comparison with the proposed methodology of ANN BP (Artificial Neural Network Back Propogation) and fuzzy logic; in order to achieve their more gain in estimation. It will lead us to know that which method should be used with specific conditions.
Dinesh Bhagwan Hanchate
Department of Computer Engineering, VP’s KBIET, Baramati, Pune, India.
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ovidius GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
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In this study, core samples were taken from column or reinforced wall in order to make reinforcement or restoration. The effect of the element height and volume of voids of these samples to the compressive strength were investigated. C25 type ready to use concrete was used and a column without steel was produced. During the production process, 15 cm reference cube samples were taken from the fresh concrete. After 28 days, 8 cores from reference cubes and 128 samples from column were taken and their compressive strengths were determined. As a result, the average compressive strength of the reference core samples was 36.95 Mpa and according to the height compressive strengths of other samples was ranging between 37.3 and 43.0 Mpa. The ratio of the increasing of the compressive strength changes between 0.95 and 16.37% according to the reference sample. Based on the experimental results, fuzzy Logic method was used for modelling of the experimental results. The paper demonstrates that fuzzy logic can be successfully used in modelling the compressive strength of concrete for different height and volume of voids. This model enables us to easily and reliably estimate the compressive strength of concrete.
Lecturer Metin Uzunoğlu
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Konuralp, Düzce, Turkey.
Prof. Dr. Ercan Özgan
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art Design and Architecture, Konuralp, Düzce, Turkey.
Dr. Tuncay Kap
Department of Constructin Technology, Düzce Vocational School, Düzce, Turkey.
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The two major technical challenges facing widespread deployment of microgrids are the impacts of microsources and active loads on control instruments and protective devices. Classical protective devices operate through detection and response. Detection is performed by measuring parameters of the system and comparing with set values. Response is performed through isolation of faulted segment if the result of comparison dictates isolation. These classical protective devices as well as modified classical devices reported in literature malfunction under complex operating conditions of microgrids that have multiple controls regimes and are capable of grid interconnection and islanding. In this book chapter, a quad-variable rule-based relay is described. The relay meets both plug-and-play and peer-to-peer requirements of microgrids. The interaction of four critical parameters of complex microgrids is modeled using fuzzy rule. Using the rules, sub-controllers are designed for microsource and feeder in the distribution system. Combinational logic components are used to realize the hardware of the sub-controllers in SimPowerSystems. Reliability of the relay is established through offline and online response tests. The relay marks a departure from classical or modified classical protection wherein protection is based on a defined short circuit capacity. In this work, protection is based on nominal parameters of two members of the distribution system – microsources and feeders.
Dr. Maruf A. Aminu
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/aast/v6