Reviewing the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture and Farm Households through Gender Lens | Chapter 09 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of our time. Impact of climate change can be felt in many areas including agriculture. Agriculture is primary occupation of a human being. Among all the human activities, agriculture being the mostly weather dependent is physically and economically more vulnerable to climate change. With climate change looming in the scene, agriculture and livelihoods of the farm-households are also affected. Vulnerability to climate change is determined by many factors of which gender and poverty are important ones. The contribution and significance of women in agriculture and livelihood cannot be undermined. What impact climate change has, how much vulnerable people are and what adaptation and mitigation strategies they adopt varies with gender. The present paper is based on reviews from different journals, papers and secondary data. It reviews the relationship between climate change, agriculture and gender roles & relations. Climate change is found to have negative impact on Brazilian crop. Mortality rate of men during cyclone was found to be more in developed countries while more women in developing countries. In Amhara, women and women headed households were found to be more vulnerable to food insecurity during flood. Women and children were the one who were more affected by rainfall and drought. To cope up with drought most men farmer commit suicide or migrate to cities on the other hand women had to take up odd job like prostitution. During flood women of Bangladesh use sugar to reduce soil salinity, raise cultivable land to save it from water inundation during floods and spring surges as coping strategy. The various cases reviewed in this paper indicates that gender mainstreaming of climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions is the need of the time.

Author(s) Details

Kankabati Kalai
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492 012, India.

Dr. Loukham Devarani
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

Bai Koyu
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

Dr. Nivetina Laitonjam
School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya, India.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/101

Students’ Motivation to Learn Biology | Chapter 08 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 3

Aims: The purpose of the study was to investigate gender and school type differences in motivational orientations among grade 10 students in co-educational schools of Siaya County, Kenya.

Study Design: The study adopted a concurrent mixed methods design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Siaya County, Kenya during the second term of the year 2018 in June.

Methodology: The sample consisted of 680 students (380 boys, 300 girls) from a population of 6800 students (3800 boys, 3000 girls) using multi-stage cluster sampling and simple random sampling. The study used Biology Motivation Questionnaire (BMQ) adopted and modified to suit the study from Tuan, Chin and Shieh (2005) and Biology Interview Guide (BIG). To test gender and school type differences in motivation, independent sample t-tests were used. The hypotheses were accepted at a significance level of α=0.05.

Results: The findings indicated statistically significant gender differences in Self-efficacy (SE), Active Learning strategies (ALS) and Learning Environment Stimulation (LES) in favour of boys. There were gender differences in Performance Goal (PG) and Achievement Goal (AG) in favour of girls; there were no significant gender differences in Biology Learning Value (BLV). The findings indicated statistically significant school type differences in SE, ALS, and LES in favour of High Performing Schools (HPS). There were also statistically significant school type differences in PG and AG in favour of Low Performing Schools (LPS). There were no statistically significant school type differences with regard to BLV.

Conclusion: It is concluded that gender and school type differences exist with regard to motivational orientations and beliefs. Implications for practice are highlighted.

Author(s) Details

Ongowo Richard Owino

Department of Curriculum Instruction and Media, Rongo University, P.O.Box 103-40404, Rongo, Kenya.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/77/1049/742-1

View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/pass/v3

Detecting Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South Eastern Nigeria: The Role of Adiposity Indices in Relation to Gender | Chapter 16 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 1

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the predicting powers of different adiposity indices on incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among adult men and women in Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria.

Methodology: Three thousand five hundred adult civil servants (1532 men and 1968 women), aged 18 – 60 years, were assessed for incident T2DM using 2011 Expert Committee Revised criteria for the diagnosis of T2DM.

Results: Incident T2DM was found in 180 (5.4%) participants, 73 men (4.8%) and 116 women (5.9%). Results of comparison between diabetic men and women showed that body mass index (BMI) and mid arm circumference (MAC) did not differ significantly between groups. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratios (WHR) of women with T2DM were significantly higher than those of men with T2DM (WC: P =0.001 and WHR: P=0.034). BMI and MAC had equal predicting powers in both genders with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as follows: BMI (OR=2.41, C.I=1.728 – 7.01 for men and 2.02, 1.51 – 6.402 for women); MAC (OR =1.624, C.I=1.824 – 7.051 for men and 1.51, 1.62 – 6.59 for women); WHR and WC were predictive of T2DM only in women. OR and C.I were as follows: – WHR (OR=2.435, 0.951- 6.413 for women and 0.729, 0.547 – 1.14 for men); WC: (2.834, 1.270 – 5.421 for women and 1.21, 0.695 -1.845 for men) respectively.

Conclusion: All adiposity indices measured were significantly associated with incident T2DM in women, with only BMI and MAC showing significant association with T2DM in men.

Author(s) Details

Christopher E. Ekpenyong
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/75/943/712-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/erms/v1