Groundwater Salinity | Chapter 06 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Saline groundwater occurs in the Karha River basin area. Groundwater is one of the major resource for the peoples of River area for domestic and agricultural purpose. The groundwater samples from study area were collected in the period of post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons. The various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), HCO3-, Cl-, and SO42- were determined using standard procedures of APHA. The results of analysis were compared with the drinking water quality standards of Indian Standard Institute (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO). For suitability of groundwater for agricultural purposes, groundwater data was compared with standard parameter of FAO. The average annual values of the electrical conductivity of groundwater ranged from 504 to 8624 μS/cm in the study period. In Karha River basin area the salinity of groundwater was considerable. 24% samples were EC up to 750 μS/cm which is low salinity and suitable for all purposes such as drinking, domestic and agricultural.  In rest of the area 76% groundwater samples showed high to very salinity (EC > 2250 μS/cm). Higher saline water is not suitable for drinking, domestic and agricultural purpose. The soluble sodium percentage values ranged from 7.68 to 92.83%. 18% groundwater samples from the study area showed higher soluble sodium percentage (>60%), indicating, groundwater in the study area was doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation purpose.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. R. P. Dhok
Agricultural Development Trust’s Shardabai Pawar Mahila College, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Shardanagar, Baramati, India.

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Assessment of Key Ground Water Quality Parameters and Their Mapping Using GIS in Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam, India | Chapter 05 | Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2

Groundwater is considered as one of major part of the purest forms of water available in nature. Hence, to understand the use of the ground water resources and to get sustainable ground water quality the fundamental characteristics of the groundwater need to be analyzed. In the present study, GIS-based mapping of the groundwater in the central Brahmaputra Valley Zone is done with a view to observe the various quality characters. The results of this investigation could be used by decision-makers for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. The groundwater pH of the district was found to be within the desirable limit as recommended by WHO but 67.30% sample covering 79% of the total geographical area of the district was slightly alkaline in nature. Groundwater quality parameters that surpassed the desirable limit recommended by WHO, were electrical conductivity and nitrate which accounted for 41.22% and 0.79% of the total samples. Total Dissolved Solids, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate and nitrate in groundwater were recorded within the desirable limit of WHO and thus could be considered as safe. Spatial autocorrelation run for all the quality parameters with respect to their positions and values over the entire district envisaged the possibilities of forming different pattern namely CLUSTER for pH, EC, As, F, Fe, Al, Mn,HCO3, RANDOM for Mg, Ca, CO3, NO3, SO4 and DISPERSED for TDS. GIS-aided mapping of groundwater quality parameters embracing their category wise spatial distribution, area, maximum and minimum values, surface autocorrelation of observed values could give a better idea to opt for suitable need-based management strategy for the entire district.

Author(s) Details

Dr. I. H. Thakuria
Agricultural Development Officer, Government of Assam, India.

P. P. Hazarika
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Assam, India.

Dr. B. K. Medhi
Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Assam, India

Mr. K. Deka
Assam Agricultural University, Assam, India.

Dr. N. Rahman
RARS, Sillongoni, Assam, India.

Dr. N. Baruah
Biswanath College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Assam, India.

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