Escamoles, Ant Eggs (Liometopum apiculatum M.): An Underutilized Food | Chapter 09 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: To assess, Protein, Amino Acids, Lipids, fat-soluble vitamins A and E, Minerals, Fiber and Soluble Carbohydrates in Escamoles and inform the population about the benefits the intake of these edible insects may provide for human health.

Study Design: A combined protocol with both sampling and analytical procedures was used.

Place and Analysis: Escamoles were collected from different locations such as: El cardonal, Actopan, Santiago Anaya, Tulancalco, Huichapan, Apan, Tulancingo and Santuario, in spring (2014). Nutrient content analysis was performed according to AOAC methods and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).

Methodology: Sample: Conventional sampling was performed during the second week of March, 2014. Escamoles analysis: Macronutrient and energy content in escamoles was determined by individually analyzing macro and micro nutrients according to AOAC methods.

Results: The analysis showed that Escamoles contain: Proteins, 43.06 g/100 g; Minerals, 6.78 g/100 g; Fiber, 1.15 g/100 g; Soluble Carbohydrates, 18.74 g/100 g; Lipids, 34.96 g/100 g; Vitamin A, Retinol, 0.3024 mg /100 g and Vitamin E, α-tocopherol, 3.29 mg/100 g.

Conclusion: Escamoles are an additional source of nutrients that are underutilized due to the lack of knowledge regarding its nutritional composition, so it is important to increase the amount of information about escamoles and the health benefits that could be obtained from their consumption.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Melo-Ruiz
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

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Insects as Food from Deserted Areas in Mexico | Chapter 03 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Introduction: A large amount of people in semi desert zones live in poverty due to shortage production of food, hence they do not have adequate foodstuff supply, situation that lead to a high index of malnutrition. Semi desert zone at Hidalgo State (north-east of Actopan, Hidalgo) is not suitable for crops, however, flora of Xerophit Thicket mainly Opuntia spp, Agave spp, mezquite trees (Prosopis velutina) and huizache shrubs (Acacia farnesiana L.), are appropriate for the reproduction under critical climate and soil conditions of several species of insects that, even though they are a good source of nutrients that would help to low down malnutrition, are not consumed on regular basis by locals.

Aims: The aim of this paper is to detect the edible insects from an arid zone of the State of Hidalgo, assess their macronutrient value and deliver that information to the local population.

Place and Duration of Study: Convenience sampling of wild insects were provided at an arid zone of the Hidalgo State, northeast of Actopan city located 2,100 masl with an arid and semiarid climate throughout 2015.

Methodology: Macronutrient content of insects from different order (three species of Lepidoptera, two species of Coleoptera, three species of Hymenoptera, one of Orthoptera and one of Hemiptera) were analyzed according to AOAC (1995) methods [1-3].

Results: Results ranged as follows: proteins from 9.85% to 74.85%; lipids from 5.85% to 55.85%, total ashes from 2.95% to 7.15%; fiber from 0.72% to 6.75% and soluble carbohydrates from 8.87% to 79.16%. Data showed that insects have good nutritional values. Their reproduction is seasonal but some species can be found all year long and hence represent good alternative to provide food security.

Conclusion: Wild insects collected in an arid zone of Hidalgo State showed adequate chemical composition values for human diet, with significant levels of proteins, low dietary fiber content, high values of fatty acids essential for nutrition and minerals. These small wild animals are a promising source of food to overcome malnutrition problems faced by poor population and provide food security.

Author(s) Details

Dr. V. Melo-Ruiz
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico.

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Quality Attributes of Family Planning Programme towards a Successful Family Life | Chapter 06 | Perspectives of Arts and Social Studies Vol. 2

This paper discusses quality attributes of the family planning programme towards a successful family life. It highlights the barriers preventing most families from utilizing family planning facilities in Nigeria. The article went further to explore the quality attributes associated to family planning. The characteristics of a quality family planning programme were discussed and attributes of a well planned family life x-rayed. The quality family life and national development were examined and suggestions were proffered for achieving a good family planning program in any community in Nigeria. Family planning programme is a lifesaving scheme to families and investing in it is a necessity in today’s world. The continuous increase in the Nigerian population has aggravated the level of poverty among the populace. This is most devastating to families, preventing them from living a qualitative family life. This phenomenon is a drain to the nation’s human resources in national development. The various hindrances to family planning can be addressed to give chance to quality family planning programme in Nigeria towards a successful family life of its criticism.

Author(s) Details

Dr (Mrs) Bridget Esele Uwameiye
Department of Vocational and Technical Education, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.

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Assessment of Copper and Zinc Dynamics in the Soil – Plant System | Chapter 05 | New Perspectives in International Plant and Soil Research Vol. 1

The term heavy metal, when related to its impact on the life of the plant, almost always implies negative connotations. However, some heavy metals like copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential to maintain the metabolism of plant, and without them the plant would not be able to successfully complete its life cycle. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of Zn and Cu in the soil – plant system in intensive strawberry plantation on pseudogley soil in Northwestern Bosnia, area of Gradacac. The content of Zn and Cu in the examined soil, leaves and fruits of strawberries was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zn and Cu contents (means +/- SEM) were 82.06 +/- 14.07 and 8.45 +/- 2.35 in soil, 100.34 +/- 4.61 and 0.41 +/- 0.11 in leaves, 91.72 +/- 6.32 and 0.32 +/- 0.18 in fruits expressed as mg/kg dry matter (DW), respectively. Uptake, translocation and accumulation of Zn in the leaves and fruits of strawberries was at a satisfactory level in accordance with the plant’s needs for this element, which was not the case when the dynamics of Cu was studied. Some of the main reasons for that were: a low Cu content in the examined soil, low mobility of Cu in the plant, and antagonistic relationship between Zn and Cu in soil.

Author(s) Details

Senad Murtic
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Constant Power Solution of Hill’s Equation | Book Publisher International

British Nobel laureate A.V. Hill invented 1938 the famous muscle mechanics equation which is commonly known as the force-velocity relationship of muscle contraction.  Hill’s equation is a constant power equation. Hill’s equation can be presented in a form in which it shows Hill’s equation in three different power components (paragraph 1.4). The first power component is the power which is done against external force. Force multiplied by velocity is power. Second is the power of friction. Third term has no velocity variable, and therefore it can be concluded that it has no effect on the motion. It is the power consumption of muscle’s operational ability. This is the beginning of the solution of Hill’s equation. This book requires the ability of high school mathematics and mechanics. With that ability it is possible to reach high level of applied mechanics and mathematics which in this study is the level of Nobel price. Although this book signifies high level of science, the special concern has been taken to present the whole solution process as easy as possible. Most important part of the iteration process is in hand written form. In hand written form it is easy to differentiate from the other part of iteration process, and furthermore it signifies that hand work is necessary to learn and understand this kind of research process. The solution process consists of 73 equations, but they are in easy form, and most of them are closely related, and therefore easy to understand.  This book could be (for instance) a study book for applied mechanics. The solution of Hill’s equation in this book is founded on the research papers which are published in scientific journals (paragraph 1.5). Because the contents of articles are limited in these research papers, the iteration process of curve fitting is missing. In this book the fitting processes of these papers are referred as First fitting, and the total fitting processes have been presented here, and they are referred as Second fitting. The fitting processes of First Fitting have been continued in this book in order to obtain more accurate values and to confirm the theory of muscle contraction. In Second fitting the theory of muscle contraction in arm rotation movement (Maximum rotational moment → Maximum power → Maximum velocity) was used to determine value of Maximum power in three different manners.  These three Maximum power values must be the same value, and using this fact the total solution of Hill’s equation has been proved to be true. The bold letters have been written to differentiate the most important basic things.

Biography of author(s)

Ahti Rahikainen
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, P.O.Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.

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