A Study on Heavy Metal Content of Soil in Garki Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria | Chapter 7 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol.1

This study investigates the concentration of Heavy Metals in soil sample from 15 different locations in Garki area of Federal Capital Territory (F.C.T) Abuja, Nigeria. The soil PH of the sample sites varies on the average from 6.44 to 7.24 in water indicating only a slightly acidic to neural. The level of Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained indicated that these metals on dry weight basis in the soil ranged between (36.60525.0 µg/g) Pb, (15.00-74.40 µg/g) Cu, (17.50-29.80 µg/g) Zn, (0.7-2.20 µg/g) Cd, (16.16-24.60 µg/g) Ni, and (270-558.0 µg/g) Mn. From the results, areas with high traffic density seem to be relatively high in concentration of tested metals than those from less traffic density. A significant correlation was found between traffic density and metal concentrations. Generally, the concentrations obtained were much higher than the tolerable limit for safe environment as prescribed by National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) and World Health Organization (WHO).

Author(s) Details

Suleiman Kabiru
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Rufai Yakubu
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Aminu Lukman
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

Toba Akintola
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.


Mathias Alegbemi
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.


Fatimat Musa
Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, P.M.B. 1026, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria.

View Book: – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/162

Study on Assessing the Source of Thallium Contamination in Ground and Surface Waters in the Locality of Yamtenga (Burkina Faso): Correlation with Some Heavy Metal Ions | Chapter 1 | Current Research and Development in Chemistry Vol. 1

Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential element for human being and is considered as a highly toxic trace element at a concentration above 2 µg/L. To assess the source of thallium contamination in ground and surface waters in the locality of Yamtenga village (11°43’35.1” N and 00°11’50.8” W, Burkina Faso), chemical analyzes of thallium concentrations in the soils of Yamtenga village along with geological descriptions (geological map and hydrographic watershed map of the studied area) were undertaken. We found thallium concentrations in this area ranging from 1.61 mg / kg to 404.75 mg / kg. A zoned mineralization in thallium, due to the geological structure of the locality, was established in the soils, suggesting that the source of thallium contamination in ground and surface waters in the locality of Yamtenga village is of natural origin. The concentration of some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Mn) were also evaluated in the soils of Yamtenga village and their concentration relationships with thallium were analyzed by the Pearson correlation coefficient based on matrix correlation. Moderate (0.554), low (0.408) and significant (0.999) correlations coefficients were obtained between thallium and lead, zinc, manganese respectively. Significant correlation coefficients (0.788 and 0.791) were also noted between thallium and copper, cadmium respectively. Thallium concentrations in ground and surface waters in this locality are mainly related to the interactions between water and source rocks, thallium being released following some alteration processes with other heavy metals elements especially manganese.

Author(s) Details

Ollé Rodrigue Kam
Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux (LCMM)/Équipe Chimie Physique et Électrochimie, Université Joseph KIZERBO, UFR–SEA, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso

Corneille Bakouan
Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux (LCMM)/Équipe Chimie Physique et Électrochimie, Université Joseph KIZERBO, UFR–SEA, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

Inoussa Zongo 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CNRST), Laboratoire des Technologies de l’environnement et des Produits Naturels, Institut de Recherche en Sciences Appliquées et Technologies (IRSAT), 03 BP 7047 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

Boubié Guel
Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux (LCMM)/Équipe Chimie Physique et Électrochimie, Université Joseph KI-ZERBO, UFR–SEA, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

View Book: – http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/162

Review of Edible Plants in Dumpsites: Risks of Heavy Metals Toxicity and Implications for Public Health | Chapter 13 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3

Studies of dumpsites have revealed that the surrounding soils and water are contaminated with high threshold of heavy metals through anthropogenic inputs. In this review, the uptake and toxicity risks of these heavy metals by habitual edible plants at levels above threshold limit and the implications for public health have been discussed. Edible plants are plants with nutritional and medicinal potentials which can salvage numerous human and animal needs when taken. Edible plants like most other underutilized plants in dumpsites have developed mechanisms which enable them to not only survive but accumulate high level of toxic heavy metals due to high level of environmental metal load in the dumpsites. This ultimately could lead to high human and animal exposure to these toxic elements through food-chain/food-web or direct ingestion of soils. The toxic effects caused by excess concentrations of these heavy metals in living organisms vary considerably and present numerous clinical situations ranging from neurological disorder, cellular damage among others and death in extreme cases. This review suggest the urgent need for policy makers to regulate the use of dumpsites for arable farming and the dependence on edible plants in dumpsites to avert heavy metal poisoning in populations.

Author(s) Details

Nwogo Ajuka Obasi
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

Mrs. Stella Eberechukwu Obasi
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana, Nigeria.

Getrude Obianuju Aloh
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Sunday Oge Elom
Environmental Biochemistry, Health and Toxicology Research Unit, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/130

Heavy Metals Removal From Spent Synthetic-Based Drilling Mud Using Nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) | Chapter 05 | New Insights on Chemical Research Vol. 1

Management of waste generated from oil and gas activities in the Niger Delta, is a major environmental challenge given that if the spent mud is disposed without proper treatment, the heavy metals will pose a lot of health risks to human through ingestion or inhalation. The heavy metals are also toxic to marine organisms, if disposed into the sea, untreated. Spent synthetic drilling mud is a major waste stream, among its components, are heavy metals. Samples collected on day 0 and biweekly were digested and analysed using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). With nano Zero-Valent Iron, nZVI, concentration of 0.75mg/L of the spent mud, more than 95% removal were recorded for most metals in 6 weeks and over 99% in 12 weeks. The residual heavy metal concentrations met global limits for effluent disposal. Mathematical models with the goodness of fit, R2 of 0.999, were developed to predict the removal process.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Obinduka Felix
Centre for Occupational Health, Safety and Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Ify L. Nwaogazie
Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Onyewuchi Akaranta
Centre of Excellence, Centre for Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Prof. Gideon O. Abu
Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/105

Roadside Heavy Metals in Soil and Plants | Chapter 05 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 3

Heavy metal concentration in roadside soil and plants are increasingly becoming of health concern. Especially with the continue increase in anthropogenic activities such as industries and urbanization which releases pollutants in to the environment without control and effects remedies. Heavy metal is any metal that is toxic regardless of their density or atomic mass. Heavy metals occur naturally in the soil environment from the pedogenetic processes of weathering of parent materials and from anthropogenic sources such as traffic emission, industrial and energy production, waste disposal, vehicle exhaust as well as coal and fuel combustion. Among the numerous environmental pollutants, heavy metals plays an important role as its concentrations in air, soil and water are continuously increasing due to anthropogenic activities. To determine heavy metals in roadside soil and plants, Hong major road in Adamawa State, Nigeria was taken as a case study. The concentration of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu) in roadside soils and plants samples from selected sites (Plaifu, Shiwa, Fadama-rake and Damdrai) along major road in Hong were determined. Soil samples were taken 10 m, 20 m and 30 m away from the edge of the road at the depth of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm. Plant samples were randomly collected within the vicinity where the soil samples were taken and were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result revealed the trend in soil heavy metal concentration was Fe > Mn > Mg > Pb > Zn > Ni > Co > Cu > Cr > Cd and for plant the trend was Fe > Mn > Mg > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Co > Cr. The concentrations decreased with increasing distance away from the edge of the road as well as with depth at which the soil sample were taken. The transfer factor showed that the concentration of Zn, Mn, Cu and Mg were greater than 1, which shows that plant were enriched by Zn, Mn, Cu and Mg from the soil. Mg and Cd equal to 1 at Plaifu and Damdrai. Most of the values of TF at the study area super pass 0.5, which implies that generally, the ability of bioaccumulation of these heavy metals in examined plants were relatively high.

Author(s) Details

Nachana’a Timothy
Department of Chemistry, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/104

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Chemically Precipitated Nickel in a Synthetic Aqueous Media | Chapter 04 | Theory and Applications of Chemistry Vol. 3

In the liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems there is possible to promote the chemical precipitation of certain species by controlling the physical-chemical conditions of the liquid media. In the case of solid-liquid interactions the chemical precipitates can adsorb on the surface of particles modifying their surface properties (i.e. during milling), whereas for the liquid-liquid system this precipitation contributes to clean for instance wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.

In this work nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4 ∙ 6H2O) was dissolved in distilled water, to establish the physicochemical conditions (pH, electrochemical potential, ionic strength, activity coefficient) that enhance the chemical precipitation of nickel species.

The chemical analysis of precipitates was carried out by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry, and the quantitative chemical analysis of liquids was carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The zeta potential of nickel precipitates was also determined.

The experimental results show that nickel precipitates as nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) starting at pH 3, being more evident at pH 9. Nickel precipitates completely at pH 11. From zeta potential measurements the surface charge goes from negative to positive with the IEP at pH  around 11, such behavior is attributed to the change of nickel hydroxide type from α-Ni(OH)2 to β-Ni(OH)2.

The functional groups of nickel precipitates were obtained through FTIR spectrometry, where the peak at 3650 cm-1 represents the free OH group in the β-Ni(OH)2 phase.

From these results, there is possible to propose a cleaning route of water contaminated with nickel.

Author(s) Details

G. Ramiro Escudero
Institute of Research in Metallurgy and Materials, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán, México.

E. Eunice Espinoza
Institute of Research in Metallurgy and Materials, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán, México.

Feng Rao
Institute of Research in Metallurgy and Materials, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán, México.

A. Javier Guillen
Department of Research, Higher Technological Institute of Tacámbaro, Tecario, Tacámbaro, Michoacán, México.

View Volume: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/book/104

Impact of Auto Exhaust Pollution on Trees | Chapter 03 | Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2

Environmental pollution and its impact on living organisms is worldwide problem. The pollutants discharged from the automobile activities are particulate matter, heavy metals (Pb and Cd), carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides producing toxic effects on plant growth. The other common effects are reduced yield of flowers, branch length, leaf area and reduction in seed germination percentage. This book chapter provide some information about the impact of auto exhaust pollution on plant growth. The importance of tree in the urban environment cannot be ignore. A number of studies on the effects of air pollution on tree growth have been carried out by researchers over the past many years in developed and in developing countries. Trees play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance, pollution reduction and lessening the burden of pollutant by absorbing pollutants. However, trees in urban cities are growing in a severe stressful environment due to incomplete burning of fossil fuel and badly maintained vehicles resulting shorten life span of plant. The growth of plants could be affected by several reasons and one of them is the presence of toxic pollutants derived from the auto vehicular exhaust emission.

Author(s) Details

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Adjunct Professor, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270, Pakistan.

Dr. Muhammad Shafiq, P.G.D. (P.A.), M.A.S. (H.R.), M.Sc. Ph.D.
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi -75250, Pakistan.

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Athar Tariq, DSc.
California Department of Food and Agriculture, 1220 N Street, Room 325, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA.

Dr. Muhammad Kabir
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sub-Campus Bhakkar, Bhakkar-30000, Punjab, Pakistan.

Dr. Zia-Ur-Rehman Farooqi
Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Read full article: http://bp.bookpi.org/index.php/bpi/catalog/view/76/1015/719-1
View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/atias/v2