Study on Human Vaccines for Oncogenic Viruses and Perspectives for Tumor Antigens Induced by Virus | Chapter 7 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

The Variola major, the virus that causes the smallpox, lethal virus in the 30% of the cases, was eraticated in 1979 in the human species, thanks to a capillary vaccination on global scale. Recently the Word Health Organization (WHO) declared that India and Southeast Asia are polio-free, really a great achivement since the vaccine for polio, an infectious desease that can cause paralysis, was certificated safe and useful only 60 years ago. The vaccine for the virus, responsible for hepatitis B infection HBV, is able to prevent 50% of all liver cancers. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) have been correlated with the cervical cancer (genotypes 16 and 18 particularly oncogenic in humans): the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006 released the first vaccine against HPV. Finally, the ability of the immune system to recognize a tumor-associated antigen enables the development of a vaccine approach for therapeutic application and represents a main target of this field of research. Long years of research were required for busting new systems to fight cancer. Research is going to obtain the complete sequence by proteomics approaches, in order to achieve adequate antigen preparations that might be used to generate assays for a specific anticancer vaccine. 

Author(s) Details


Giulio Tarro
Beaumont Bonelli Foundation for Cancer Research, Naples, Italy and Committee on Biotechnologies and Virus Sphere, World Academy of Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Paris, France.

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Relation of the Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses with Tumor Necrosis Factor- α among Patients in Babylon Province | Chapter 7| Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 3

Background: Hepatitis is a liver disease caused by infectious and non-infectious agents. Hepatitis B and C are global health problem. Hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections are usually occur in the population due to their divers mode of transmission through blood. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus among population in Babylon province and evaluation of the levels of the TNF-alpha in infected patients with hepatitis B and C. Methods: The study was conducted on individuals referred to the Central Public Health Laboratory to detected the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in Babylon province. A total of 6061 samples was involved in this study, they surveyed by VIDAS test for demonstration of both viruses, then confirmed by real- time PCR. Concentration of TNF- α was measured in patients with hepatitis B and C and control group (Control group included healthy individuals with no history of renal or liver diseases and negative results for HBV and HCV test) by using ELISA test. Results: A total of 6061 individual were examine, amongst them, 18 (0.29%) were positive for HBV and 16 (0.26%) were positive for HCV by both VIDS test and real-time PCR.  Most of HBV infections seen among hemodialysis patients followed by haemophila, while most HCV infections seen among thalasemia and haemophila patients than others groups. The prevalence of both viruses was higher among male than female, and in urban than rural rejoin. Most of HBV infections were high in individual with age ranging between 20-29 and 30-39 years, while most HCV infections in individual with age ranging between 20-29 years, although it is statistically insignificant.  The TNF- α mean serum level was significantly higher in individual with HBV and HCV infection (68.7±12.84 pg/mL) and (89.1±22.017) as compared with control group (43.1±5.87 pg/mL). Conclusion: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus was relatively low. There are increasing level of TNF-α in the serum of patients with viral hepatitis B and C. 

Author(s) Details

Rasha Hadi Saleh
Department of Clinical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Babylon University, Iraq.

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