Impact of HIV/AIDS Burden on Economic Growth in Selected Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) Countries: Evidence from a Dynamic System GMM Estimates | Book Publisher International

HIV/AIDS is seen as not only the leading cause of death in SSA region but a major public health challenge. Currently, 13% of total population workforce in the region lives with the epidemic; the above means that one in every ten adults in the region is HIV/AIDS positive. Regrettably so, there is a link between the epidemic prevalence and poverty. As a result, the study empirically examined the impact of HIV/AIDS burden on economic growth in selected Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries: Evidence from a dynamic system GMM estimates utilizing cross-country series of 18 countries in the region for the period of 1986-2015. The choice of the selected 18 SSA countries was driven by factors such as degree of prevalence of the epidemic, level of economic growth and regional affiliations resulting in four major regional blocs: SADC, ECOWAS, CEMAC and COMESA. Expectedly, the study employed a two-step dynamic Blundell-Bond system GMM panel estimation technique alongside with the Diebold and Yilmaz (2012) index variance decomposition approach. This was done to achieve conditional convergence in the growth equation and also to disaggregate the prevalence shock due to the epidemic burden. Series such as output per capita, output per capita growth, HIV/AIDS prevalence, public health expenditure, total investment, number of school enrollment are amongst others used in the study. Several pre-and post-diagnostics were accordingly carried out amongst which are Windmeijer (2005) finite sample correction for standard errors, stationarity test while controlling for heterogeinety, endogeneity or omitted variable biases, Hansen J-statistic for identification, Diff-in-Hansen test for validity of the additional moment restrictions, Breusch-Pagan Lagrange multiplier (LM) and Hausman tests for acceptability of the RE model etc. The findings from the study revealed that HIV/AIDS prevalence, not only have impacted negatively on human capital development and output growth in the region but has also currently been transmitting burden amongst member states thereby rendering the entire region vulnerable; particularly the low income countries. It further found that prevalence rate and income level of a country determines the level of her vulnerability to the epidemic burden in the region. The study therefore recommends that since members of SADC sub-region with very high prevalence rates are seen as powerful vector of contagion; therefore, a good understanding of cross-border epidemic burden spillovers on growth within the region is essential for policy coordination in the areas of preventive measures (reducing morbidity and mortality), improved capital inflow for inclusive growth ceteris paribus. Finally, it was recommended that the region should drive growth process as a unit.

Author(s) Details

Diyoke, Kenneth Onyeka
Department of Economics, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja- Nigeria.

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Effect of Organotherapic Medicine on Glycaemia in Patients and Animals Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy | Chapter 09 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 2

Aims: To evaluate the effect of an organotherapic drug, produced from the pancreas of a young pig, on glycemic alterations in AIDS patients.

Methodology: Current study was carried out in a double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized design. AIDS patients who had high fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL) were selected so that the effect of the organotherapic drug could be evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I comprised patients who received the organotherapic drug diluted in 1×1012 alcohol/ water 8%, once a day, with a sublingual-administered fasting dose of 10 drops, during four months. Group II consisted of patients receiving placebo once a day at the same dosage. Glucose oxidase method and ELISA, following the manufacturer’s instructions, respectively determined levels of glucose and insulin before treatment and monthly until four months after the start of treatment.

Results: Results registered hyperglycemia in 30% of the patients (60/200), higher than in the population at large (7-15%). This fact could be related to the time of infection (10.0±4.78 years) and treatment (9.3±3.76 years) of the patients. On the other hand, patients who underwent treatment with organotherapic medicine showed a significant reduction (p<0,001) in blood glucose levels (from 204.5±86.63 to 86.63±16) and lower insulin levels after four months of treatment (organotherapic group with 8.02±3.598 versus placebo with 23.83±3.670 p<0,001) within normality, regardless of age, time of infection and time of treatment. This fact suggests that the organotherapic drug was effective to stabilize blood glucose levels in patients.

Conclusion: Current study evidences that the organotherapic drug obtained from the pancreas of a young pig, diluted 1×1012 in alcohol/ water 8% improves blood glucose levels in patients with hyperglycemia keeping within the normal range after four months of treatment. Considering the HAART therapy that significantly increases the life expectancy of AIDS patients but with significant metabolic alterations this study shows the possibility of utilization of complementary and alternative therapies. Although results indicate a significant effect of the organotherapic drug, additional studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects.

Author(s) Details

A. R. T. Pupulin
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil.

L. Mortean
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil.

T. Sakurada Jr
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil.

M. Spack Jr
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Maringa, Brazil.

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Homeopathic Drug improve Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by HAART in Mice | Chapter 12 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Aims: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has changed the natural history of HIV infection, several adverse events may limit its efficacy. Antiretroviral drugs are associated with increased risk of severe hepatotoxicity. Homeopathy is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine and is used to treat certain liver ailments. Chelidonium majus has a long history in the treatment of several diseases exhibit apoptotic activity, antioxidant and hepatic-protective effects. Current study evaluated the effect of homeopathic formulations of C. majus on metabolic alterations induced in mice subjected to HAART.

Methodology: Four-week old male Swiss Webster mice, weighing approximately 28-30 g, provided by the Central Animal Laboratory of the State University of Maringá, were used in the experiments. Five experimental groups with 10 animals each were distributed as follows: (I) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day, (II) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day + C. majus 6CH diluted  in water 1.0 mL once a day, added to the drinking water (1:10 mL) available ad libitum, (III) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day + C. majus 12CH diluted in water 1.0 mL once a day, added to  drinking water(1:10 mL) available ad libitum, (IV) animals treated with HAART diluted in 1.2 mL water gavage/day + C. majus 30CH diluted in water 1.0 mL once a day, added to  drinking water (1:10 mL) available ad libitum, (V) non-treated animals (control group) received 1.2 mL water by gavage/day. The experimental groups were treated for 15 days. The drug in the form of mother tincture, prepared with the presses juice of the root of C. majus was mixed in equal parts of grain alcohol (PA) obtained from the  laboratory HNCRISTIANO, São Paulo, Brazil (lot 5387). The mother tincture was then diluted in 1×1012 water to obtain the homeopathic preparation 6CH, diluted in 1×1024 to obtain the homeopathic preparation 12CH and diluted in 1×1060 to obtain the homeopathic preparation 30CH. The method for drug preparation followed  the  Brazilian  Homeopathic  Pharmacopoeia.  The  dilution  was  considered  free  from  any toxicity.  Overall  clinical  evaluation  was  performed  and  serum  cholesterol,  triglycerides,  hepatic enzymes (AST and ALT) were assessed by specific methods. Results were analyzed with GraphPad Prism by Student ́s t test.

Results: Showed that the HAART group presented a weight gain lower (50%) than the control group.  Small little weight gain of animals using HAART may be related to the already known adverse effects of the antiretroviral. On the other hand, animals treated with C. majus regardless of concentration used  (6CH,  12CH  or  30CH)  presented  similar  weight  gain  when  compared  to  control.  Clinical parameters such as, body weight gain, postural pattern, piloerection and stress manipulation, results of treated animals showed that clinical C. majus had similar aspects to the control group not subjected to HAART. Results may indicate that C. majus induces a general clinical improvement in animals treated  with  HAART.  C.  majus  protects  the  liver  of  mice  from  possible  damage  caused  by antiretroviral therapy. ALT parameter showed levels which were 37.4% lower in mices treated with C. majus 6CH and 41% lower in mices treated with C. majus 30CH when compared to the group treated only with HAART. AST decreased in the group treated with C. majus 6Ch and 30CH demonstrate same levels of control.

Conclusion: Homeopathic preparations of Chelidonium majus, reduced the toxic effects of HAART in mice. Decrease in cholesterol  and triglyceride levels, higher weight gain and better AST and ALT levels  were  reported.  Evaluated  parameters  indicate  that  C.  majus  may  be  decreasing  HAART-induced hepatotoxicity.

Author(s) Details

N. A. Steiner
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

A. L. P. P. Soares
Department of Basic Health Sciences, StateUniversity of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

R. P. Regla
Department of Basic Health Sciences, StateUniversity of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

M. Spack Jr
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

A. R. T. Pupulin
Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

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