Origin of the Viruses and Their Evolutionary History: Recent Advancement | Chapter 4 | Innovations in Medicine and Medical Research Vol.2

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) originated via a process of natural evolution, probably emerging from the primate SIV reservoir into the human population via hunting or other behavior involving contact with the blood of these animals. A particular subspecies of chimpanzee, the Pantroglodytes troglodytes, has been recognized as the most probable original source of human infection. Analysis of viral genetic sequences has allowed researchers to estimate that the native strain of HIV originated in 1931. In the West, sexual behavior patterns and injecting drug use subsequently began the epidemic. Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR), is a technique in molecular biology that amplifies a specific region of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and has been useful in the molecular characterization of viruses. The Variola major, the virus that causes the smallpox, lethal virus in the 30% of the cases, was eradicated in 1979 in the human species, thanks to a capillary vaccination on global scale. It has now become a “historical footprint” in two known laboratories, one in the USA and another in Russia, leaving no obvious source for its often-theorized use as a bioterrorist weapon. Nevertheless, mass vaccination against smallpox continues to be a leading initiative in Western countries to guard against bioterrorist attack.

Author(s) Details

Giulio Tarro
Beaumont Bonelli Foundation for Cancer Research, Naples, Italy and Committee on Biotechnologies and Virus Sphere, World Academy of Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Paris, France.

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases Posing Health Hazards to Women Who Have Sex with Women | Chapter 13 | New Insights into Disease and Pathogen Research Vol. 2

Aims: The aim of this work is to present the findings of various studies relevant to the incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STD) among women who have sex with women (WSW). This being an important issue when considering the numerous and diverse types of infections possible.

Results: The various types of STD, vaginal infections, and abnormalities that are known among WSW includes: herpes simplex virus type 2, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, trichomoniasis, syphilis, hepatitis A, HIV, genital and oral human papillomavirus, pelvic inflammatory disease, allergic vaginitis, genital herpes and genital warts, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and bacterial vaginosis. Risk factors among WSW are the number of sexual partners, minimal use of protected sexual behaviors, and very low levels of knowledge of STD prevention among WSW.  Drug-resistant pathogens have been observed in lesbian patients.

Conclusion: The threat of infection among WSW is significant, with the types and number of viral and bacterial potential pathogens being diverse and numerous. Recognition of risks will assist in correctly identifying the STD and aid in choosing the appropriate clinical care. Further research into the occurrence of STDs among WSW will benefit and contribute to public health.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Ronald Bartzatt
Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska, 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68182, USA.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/nidpr/v2