Immune Response of Broiler Chicks to Newcastle Disease Vaccine (LaSota), by Different Routes | Chapter 05 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 5

Aims: This work was undertaken to study the immune response of broiler chicks to LaSota vaccine by using different routes of administration.

Study Design: The design used was a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Poultry Unit of the Kogi State University Teaching and Research Farm Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. It lasted for 5 weeks.

Methodology: One-hundred-day old broiler chicks were grouped into 4 of 25 chicks each (A, B, C and D). In the 3rd week of life, the groups were vaccinated with LaSota by intraocular (i/o), intramuscular (i/m) and oral (per os) routes respectively while Group D served as the unvaccinated control group. Five chicks from each group were randomly selected and bled at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks post LaSota vaccination. Their sera were used for Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test.

Results: All the routes used produced high levels of Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) antibody titres two weeks post vaccination. Immunity fell below protective level after 5 weeks post vaccination.

Conclusion: All the routes in this study were immunogenic and vaccination failure may not necessarily be due to the route of administration of vaccine.

Author(s) Details

Mary Ekundayo Sanda
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rabr/v5

Association between Immunoglobulin G Subtypes Immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1-19 and Malaria | Chapter 10 | Current Trends in Disease and Health Vol. 1

Aims: To determine Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) responses to PfMSP1-19 antigens and their associations with malaria across different age groups.

Study Design: A community based cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Bondo Ward, in Handeni district of Tanga Region between January and May 2016. 

Methodology: We included 331 participants; 216 females, 115 males aged between 1 and 82 years, with a median age of 10 years and an inter-quartile range 5 -30 years. Two milliliters of blood was collected from each participant in EDTA coated tubes for detection of malaria and serology. Anti-MSP1-19 IgG subtypes were measured by indirect ELISA based on a protocol developed by Afro Immuno-Assay Consortium. Demographic data were collected using designed record form.

Results: Out of 331 participants, 68 (20.5%) were malaria positive. We report malaria prevalence to be highest in the age category of between 6 and 15 years, compared to individuals above 15 years (OR= 4.5; 95% CI = 2.2–8.9). Most participants were seropositive for total IgG (87.0%), IgG1 (78.5%) and IgG3 (52.9%). Concentration (optical densities) of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 was generally lower in the 1-5 year age category. There was no clear pattern for IgG 2 and IgG4 seropositivity across age categories. After adjusting for age, only IgG1 seropositivity was significantly associated with lower malaria prevalence in all age categories (OR=0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 – 0.8).

Conclusion: IgG1subtype to MSP1-19 is associated with lower malaria prevalence which may imply its possible suitability a target of a prospective malaria vaccine.  We report a high prevalence of malaria in the study area, with highest malaria prevalence recorded in older children of 6-15 years of age. Our findings show that only IgG1 antibody to MSP1-19 is associated with low malaria prevalence, suggesting a possible protective role of the subtype against malaria. We report very low responses and seropositivity of IgG2 and IgG4 subtypes. Based on our present findings, IgG1 to MSP1-19 could be an important target of a prospective malaria vaccine.

Author(s) Details

Emmanuel Athanase
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O.Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania.

Arnold Ndaro
Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, P.O.Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania.
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, P.O.Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania.

Linda Minja
Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, P.O.Box 2236, Moshi, Tanzania.

Jaffu Chilongola
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O.Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/ctdah/v1