Assessment of Population Needs by Normative Method: Romania 1989-2018 | Chapter 06 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 2

This article analyzes some concepts to argue why the quality of life in Romania is far from what was desired in the early nineties. Its presents the normative method that helps us to validate the consumption of the population by covering at minimum the essential goods and services necessary for the individual, and his family, at home and in society. Next part presents us a dynamic of social policy measures which fluctuates the main incomes of the population in the 1990-2018 time interval, and their influence on consumption. The last part of the study concludes: what are the needs of the population and to what extent they were satisfied, or not, within the time period studied. During the period of time 1990-2018 the incomes of the various families with children could not keep up with the price increases on the products and services on the market. This has resulted in time deterioration in the quality of life of these families.

Author(s) Details

Adina Mih─âilescu
Research Institute for Quality of Life Romanian Academy, Romania.

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Comparison between Democratic and Autocratic Countries | Chapter 04 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol. 2

Democratic and autocratic countries are determined by democracy index which is introduced by Economist Intelligence Unit and has been calculated since 2006 for 167 countries covering almost the entire population of the world. The Democracy index is based on five factors: Electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. These 167 countries are divided into one of four categories: Full democracy; flawed democracy; hybrid regime; and authoritarian regime or autocracy. This chapter deals with comparative study between full democratic and autocratic countries based on different social indicators such as literacy rate, unemployment rate, per capita GDP, birth rate, death rate, fertility rate, divorce rate, murder rate etc. It is observed that per capita GDP and literacy rate of full democratic countries are significantly higher than that of autocratic countries. Unemployment rate, murder rate, fertility rate crude birth rate and divorce rate of full democratic countries are significantly lower than that of autocratic countries. No significant difference was observed for crude death rate between democratic and autocratic countries.

Author(s) Details

M. Shafiqur Rahman
Department of Operations Management and Business Statistics, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

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