Economy-wide Learning: A Comparative Study of Manufacturing and Non-manufacturing Sectors in Japan | Chapter 1 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol.4

In knowledge economies, building technological capability is a continuous process and unarguably key to industrial policy development. Learning [by-doing in the industry] has been linked to a reduction in unit labor cost and overall production cost of goods and services. In this study, we comparatively studied the learning pattern of the Japanese manufacturing and service sector using industrial-leveldata. This study is perhaps the first attempt to comparatively study the productivity of the Japanese industry using the learning curve at the aggregate level. Looking back to almost 4 decade-long (19802017) of financial input-output data, we estimated the trend in technological learning using various learning models, calculated the annual progress ratios (via production function imputed in log-linear & cubic model) and revealed the dynamic technological learning across the two sectors at the aggregate level. This enabled us to identify years with good learning rates which are synonymous with costsaving across the two sectors of the economy. The results show that, while learning was restored and sustained in the services sector of the economy in the last decade, the same cannot be said about the manufacturing sector where learning (cost-saving ability) was completely lost. We conclude that (1) as typical of advance economy, Japan is now a service-oriented economy with manufacturing playing a complementary role, (2) the service sector may have benefited from advances in technologies and innovations from the manufacturing to achieve higher productivity at a lower cost.

Author(s) Details

Joseph Junior Aduba
Graduate School of Economics, Ritsumeikan University, Japan.

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Graduates’ Employability Skills Based on Current Job Demand through Electronic Advertisement | Chapter 04 | Current Research in Education and Social Studies Vol. 3

In Malaysia, there is a profusion of evidence of high graduate unemployment since many graduates are found lacking of what are needed to acquire and to maintain their jobs. In this paper, graduate employability skills were analyzed based on four major criteria: Qualification, academic score, experience and specific soft skills. The data and information used were extracted from 300 online job advertisements accessed via electronic databases at from January to March 2011. A simple checklist form was developed to quantify the information from ads into quantitative data that was later keyed in the Statistical Package for Social Science for descriptive analyses. Based on the data, it was concluded that graduates with bachelor degrees were more likely to be employable due to high demand. It was also found that academic excellence based on CGPA was not the utmost factor for graduate employability. However, since less than one-third ads were free from work experiences requirement, fresh graduates only secured a little chance to be recruited. Another factor that limited graduates employability was high demand of specific soft skills requested by employers, among which were graduates with high quality of communication/interpersonal skills, foreign language proficiency, ICT/technical skills, high spirit of teamwork and specific personal attributes. Results concluded that graduate unemployment rate will continue to increase unless the Higher Education Institution (HEI) and the graduates are prepared to sharpen their soft skills according to market niche. It is suggested that the HEI work more closely with industries, professional bodies and society through the establishment of university-industry link cooperation that will become a catalyst for soft skills enhancement.

Author(s) Details

Nik Hairi Omar
School of Psychology and Human Development, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

Rusyda Helma Mohd
School of Psychology and Human Development, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

Arena Che Kassim
School of Psychology and Human Development, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.

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