Strategy: Does the Concept Exist in Islamic Sources of Knowledge? | Chapter 02 | Emerging Issues and Development in Economics and Trade Vol. 3

The study brings new insights about the notion of strategy by exploring it in the Islamic sources of knowledge. It employs qualitative research methodologies to analyze the content taken from the texts of the Quran and the Hadith, their interpretations as well as from the biographies of Muhammad PBUH. It is part of the efforts which are being made to explore alternate perspectives in order to overcome the prevailing issues emerging in the classical management theory and practice. While works of scholars from cultural contexts different from the western cultures are surfacing in this area, it seems to be useful to also explore the Islamic sources of knowledge for the very purpose. Current study should be considered an early attempt in the specific area of strategy. It is a straightforward manner of looking into the Islamic sources of knowledge for the managerial wisdom and bringing it to light by an individual or collective effort. It should not be considered a way of negating the existing body of knowledge, but it is an attempt to bring something which may complement it. 

Author(s) Details

Waseem Gul
Omantel Telecommunications Company (S.A.O.G), Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

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Knowledge and Awareness of Anthrax among the Community People at High, Medium and Low Risk Areas of Bangladesh | Chapter 04 | Emerging Research in Medical Sciences Vol. 3

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess information about the awareness, attitudes and management practice towards Anthrax. Administrative areas of Bangladesh had been classified as high, medium, and low risk anthrax areas by assessing the risk of anthrax from reports published in daily newspapers and journals. The selected high, medium and low risk areas were Kushtia, Pabna and Mymensingh, respectively. The animal owners and family members, butchers, affected people by cutaneous anthrax were considered as the key informants. Data of management practice including feeding, awareness of zoonosis; vaccination and formal education were collected using interview-questionnaire method. A total data of 622 was collected and uploaded to the data collection tools “Magpi” and the data analysis was carried out using Epi Info™. We found a great worry about educational status in our study sites. Among the interviewers, we found about Half of people had no formal education (46.46%, 289/622). Farmers in the high risk districts significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from medium-(p=0.000) and low-(p=0.000) risk districts. Knowledge of zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination of Anthrax were also very poor among the people from low and medium risk areas. For treatment purpose, most of the farmers (about 98%) of high and low risk areas depend on village doctors. We also found that Improper washing of grass-(p=0.000) and flood-(p=0.000) were significantly responsible for Anthrax outbreaks. Finally we suggest, proper washing of grass, increase awareness towards zoonosis of Anthrax and vaccination, proper treatment by veterinarian should be insured to reduce Anthrax outbreak in Bangladesh.

Author(s) Details

K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

Md. Ariful Islam
Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymeinshg-2202, Bangladesh.

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Creativity versus Innovativeness: Exploring the Differences between the Two Constructs May Lead to Greater Innovation in Large Firms | Chapter 10 | Current Perspective to Economics and Management Vol. 3

Several individuals from top management seem to be confused about the difference between creativity and innovativeness. [1] suggests that while innovation begins with creative ideas, creativity by individuals and teams is only a starting point for innovation. Individual creativity is necessary but not sufficient to yield breakthrough innovation in organizations. This can sometimes cause confusion in employee development efforts and actions taken by management. Companies often look for ways to hire and retain creative employees and at the same time they are also interested in establishing a creative environment for knowledge workers… but should creativity be the primary focus? These firms hope that creativity enhancing steps will eventually lead to greater innovation and therefore help it to achieve sustained competitive advantage. This paper attempts to demonstrate that there are potentially other dimensions beyond creativity related to innovativeness, which should be considered at the individual level in order to foster innovation in firms. Empirical results in this study support the idea that intrinsic motivational orientation, sociability and political astuteness are enhancers to employee innovativeness while perfection seeking behavior detracts employee innovativeness. These findings may serve to extend Amabile’s [1] componential framework to center on the “innovativeness” construct versus creativity to help explain how firms need to hire, cultivate and retain the right talent.

Author(s) Details

John Cocco
Lally School of Management & Technology Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA.

Majdi Anwar Quttainah
College of Business Administration, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

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Patients’ Perceptions and Attitudes towards Patient information Leaflet (PIL) | Chapter 9 | Modern Advances in Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 1

Background: Patient-tested and -friendly  information leaflets provide  sufficient, accurate, and pertinent information about prescribed and over-the-counter medications to health consumers for their safety,  enhanced  satisfaction, improved  outcomes and no medication errors across the globe. However healthcare consumers’ knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception concerning different items of drug leaflets differ across the board.

Objective: This study aimed to explore knowledge, attitude, behaviour and perception of patients towards drug/patient information leaflets in Riyadh, capital city of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study used a self-designed reliable questionnaire for collecting relevant data about drug leaflets from purposefully selected participants (n=319) attending ambulatory clinics of a main hospital of King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh.

Results: The majority of patients were females (75%), 61% patients were between the ages of 20 to 30 years, and 58% of the participants were educated to university level. About 61% to 97% of participants agreed to knowledge, attitude and behaviour items, and only 26% patients perceived that the drug information provided by healthcare professionals suffices on its own without the drug leaflets. About 62% of the participants observed that the information in the drug leaflet is more useful than the information given verbally by healthcare professionals. The majority of patients (66% to 99%) expressed variably positive behaviour and favourable attitudes toward drug leaflet information. The participants ranked ‘indications’ (31.4%) and ‘how to use’ (26.7%) drugs as the two most important sections in drug leaflet.

Conclusion: Drug leaflets are important sources of drug information both for patients and general public globally and improve their knowledge as well as positive effects on their attitude, perception and behaviour.  Healthcare  professionals  need  to  encourage  health  consumers  to  read  the  drug leaflets which need to be patient-friendly and be written clearly in understandable lay terminology and native language. Future studies should explore and compare the knowledge base of those patients who read patient information leaflet (PIL) with those who do not read it across Arabian Gulf countries.

Author(s) Details

Saud M. Alsanad
College of Medicine, Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU),Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Naseem A. Qureshi
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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