Plant Passive Immunity: Micromorphological and Biochemical Features of the Maloideae (Rosaceae) External Tissues | Chapter 1 | Current Research Trends in Biological Science Vol. 1

The defeat of the fruits of fungal diseases is currently an important issue of plant science and is also of great economic importance. With the help of microscopic methods the leaves and fruits surface tissues of plants of four genera of the Maloideae subfamily were screened: Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Cydonia Mill., Mespilus L. and attempts were made to explain the dependence of mycosis damage on micro structural features. The species composition of fungi that cause damage to the Maloideae leaves and fruits in the Russia southern regions is analyzed. It is established that among pathogens with different types of parasitism there are common excitants, as well as highly specialized responses as on Mespilus germanica L. Higher resistance to the complex of fungal diseases, in comparison with apple and pear, was found in quince and medlar. This stability at the initial stage of the pathological process is associated with structural features such as micro morphology of the fruits and stomata cuticle in the abaxial epidermis of leaves. The leaves stomatal openings of medlar are narrow with raised outgrowths, on the surface of the fruits – the layered structure of the cuticular layer. Quince has a continuous cuticular cover. In the species least affected by mycoses, a high content of very-longchain fatty acids in the external tissues was revealed, which may be one of the factors of resistance to pathogens.  In addition, the studied species revealed differences in the content of polyphenols, which can inhibit the development of pathogens at the stage of their penetration. Thus, during the study, using the example of the Maloideae subfamily, we identified several factors of passive immunity of plants. Conventionally, they can be divided into two groups: mechanical and chemical, working at various stages of pathogen penetration into plant organism.

Author(s) Details

Alexander S. Voronkov 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

Tamara Kh. Kumachova
Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 127550, Moscow, Timiryazevskaya St. 49, Russia.

Tatiana V. Ivanova 
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology RAS, 127276, Moscow, Botanicheskaya St. 35, Russia.

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Assessment of Copper and Zinc Dynamics in the Soil – Plant System | Chapter 05 | New Perspectives in International Plant and Soil Research Vol. 1

The term heavy metal, when related to its impact on the life of the plant, almost always implies negative connotations. However, some heavy metals like copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential to maintain the metabolism of plant, and without them the plant would not be able to successfully complete its life cycle. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of Zn and Cu in the soil – plant system in intensive strawberry plantation on pseudogley soil in Northwestern Bosnia, area of Gradacac. The content of Zn and Cu in the examined soil, leaves and fruits of strawberries was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Zn and Cu contents (means +/- SEM) were 82.06 +/- 14.07 and 8.45 +/- 2.35 in soil, 100.34 +/- 4.61 and 0.41 +/- 0.11 in leaves, 91.72 +/- 6.32 and 0.32 +/- 0.18 in fruits expressed as mg/kg dry matter (DW), respectively. Uptake, translocation and accumulation of Zn in the leaves and fruits of strawberries was at a satisfactory level in accordance with the plant’s needs for this element, which was not the case when the dynamics of Cu was studied. Some of the main reasons for that were: a low Cu content in the examined soil, low mobility of Cu in the plant, and antagonistic relationship between Zn and Cu in soil.

Author(s) Details

Senad Murtic
Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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