Bioconversion of Sweet Potato Leaves to Animal Feed | Chapter 07 | Recent Advances in Biological Research Vol. 4

Background: High cost of conventional animal feed ingredients in Nigeria has made it necessary to search for alternative local sources of feed. Crop residues including sweet potato leaves abound in Nigeria. These have been explored as feed sources. The ability of microorganisms to convert agricultural wastes to more useful products could be harnessed to produce feed from sweet potato leaves which can be obtained in high abundance at low cost.

Aim: To examine the possibility of converting sweet potato leaves to animal feed through fermentation with a co-culture of Chaetomium globosum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Materials and Methods: Triplicate samples of sweet potato leaves were fermented with a co-culture of C. globosum and S. cerevisiae for 21 days at 25±2°C and the effects of fermentation on nutrient composition was determined. Fermentation and control samples were analysed for proximate, amino acids, and elemental contents. Acute oral toxicity of the fermented leaves was determined by the fixed dose method using mice and rats. Feed value of the fermented sweet potato leaves for mice was determined. Parameters assessed included feed intake, protein intake, weight gains, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio.

Results: Crude protein, crude fat and ash contents increased by 97.5%, 265.3% and 12.3%, respectively, while crude fibre and nitrogen free extract values decreased by 22.7% and 61.4% respectively. Energy content increased by 14.5%. The observed changes in the values of these nutritional components were significant (P < .05). The percentage dry matter values of all the amino acids analyzed (lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine tyrosine and phenylalanine) were found to increase, with the contents of seven of the amino acids increasing significantly. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents increased significantly while those of copper and iron decreased. The fermented leaves were found to be non toxic to mice and rats. Sole use of fermented sweet potato leaves by the mice led to depression in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Mice fed with commercial mice feed supplemented  with 5% fermented sweet potato leaves had higher weight gains, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratios than those fed on the commercial mice feed.

Conclusion: Fermentation of sweet potato leaves with a co-culture of C. globosum and S. cerevisiae improved the nutritional value of the leaves. Fermented sweet potato leaves can be included in mice feed up to 5% without negative effects. Sole use of fermented sweet potato leaves as feed for mice and possibly other animals would require mineral supplementation, energy enhancement, and further crude fibre reduction.

Author(s) Details

Isaac A. Onyimba
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/rabr/v4

Prospection of Endophyte Microorganisms from Bauhinia monandra Leaves with Mainly Identification of Actinobacteria | Chapter 06 | Advances and Trends in Biotechnology and Genetics Vol. 1

The present work aimed the prospection of microorganisms from Bauhinia monandra leaves, with the purpose to identify endophytics to obtain strains with possible biotechnological applications. B. monandra leaves, disinfected with hypochlorite solution, were macerated in phosphate buffered saline and seeded in ten culture media containing antibacterial or antifungal agents. The endophytic filamentous fungus strains detected belonged to the genera Penicillium, Curvullaria and Aspergillus. Non-filamentous endophyte bacteria were grouped in the genera Bacillus, Burkholderia, Enterobacter and strains of endophytic Actinobacteria were classified as Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. The isolation of endophytic microorganisms with nine culture media revealed better bacteria development with L-arginine agar; inorganic salt starch agar and potato dextrose agar were superior to Actinobacteria and fungus strains, respectively. The present study revealed the predominance of the genus Penicillium in leaves of B. monandra. This work introduces the first data of identification from endophyte Actinobacteria in the leaves of B. monandra.

Author(s) Details

Rosilma de O. Araujo-Melo
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Thales Henrique B. de Oliveira
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

Carlos Vinícius J. de Oliveira
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Janete M. de Araújo
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Kêsia X. F. R. de Sena
Departamento de Antibióticos, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Avenida dos Economistas, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 52171-011, Brazil.

Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho
Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Biociências, UFPE, Avenida Moraes Rego, S/N, Cidade Universitária, Recife-PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

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View Volume: https://doi.org/10.9734/bpi/atbg/v1