In vitro Seed Germination Behaviour of Simmondsia chinensis | Chapter 15 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider (Simmondsiaceae) is a evergreen shrub of desert and marginal land of India. It produces a unique liquid-wax which has commercial potential in pharmaceutical industry. It is difficult to propagate vegetatively as it is a seasonal procedure and grows slowly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the propagation method through seed germination and seedling behaviour. The present investigation was carried out to assess viability and in vitro germination tests of fresh and old seeds. It was found that light (16/8-h day/night photoperiod) conditions resulted in early and higher seed germination percentage as compared to total dark period under in vitro culture conditions. Improvement in germination percentage of one-year-old seeds was observed using Gibberellic acid (GA3), Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) under given photoperiod conditions. Interestingly, TDZ 1.0 mg/L-1 were produced highest germination rate of seeds (92%), as well as better seedling growth, followed by BAP with 70% germination rate at 0.5 mg•L-1 concentration. The method of propagation through in vitro seed germination could be effectively employed for large scale production of plant material.

Author(s) Details

Dr. Raman Bala
Department of Environmental Science, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India.

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Effect of Light and Temperature through Poly Film Covers on Anthocyanin Content in Rose Cut Flower | Chapter 06 | Modern Research in Botany Vol. 1

Quality is the most important attribute in rose cut flowers for both export and domestic market. Quality in cut flowers may be defined by many attributes however, among the most important is colour. A group of pigments commonly known as anthocyanins determine colour in plants. Anthocyanins play a significant role by ameliorate the effect of high irradiance in plants under stressful environment. They also play a key role in delaying senescence hence enhancing the cut flower vase life. Despite the advantages anthocyanins are affected by the preharvest conditions mainly light and temperature interfering with their stability. An experiment was set up to investigate the effect of light and temperature through selected coloured poly film covers on rose petal anthocyanin content. The greenhouse structure was covered by poly films of different colours that were compartmentalized i.e. UV-A clear, IR504 with yellow tint and UV-A 205/N with green tint replicated three times. Two rose cultivars Red calypso and Furiosa were established and maintained, upon maturity the flower heads were plucked and oven dried at 60°C to constant weight. 5 g of the crushed petals was used in anthocyanin extraction. The anthocyanins were extracted and quantified in comparison with commercial standards using HPLC machine. The data obtained from the chromatogram as peak areas was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS statistical package (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC) at P = .05. Where there were treatment differences, mean separation was done using Tukey’s procedure. Poly films significantly affected the quantity and quality of anthocyanin accumulation in rose petals. Cyanidin 3-0-glucoside was the most prevalent anthocyanin across all poly film covers and it was noted to be high under the UV-A 205/N (110.95±8.26 µg _ 5 g–1 DW) and IR504 (109.69±8.26 µg _ 5 g–1 DW) compared to UV-A clear (84.56±8.26 µg _ 5 g–1 DW). The quantity of anthocyanins was low under the UV-A clear poly film that was characterized by high light transmission and day temperature. Combination of high irradiance and temperature affect the quality and quantity of anthocyanin in rose cut flowers.

Author(s) Details

Dr. G. Oloo-Abucheli
Department of Plant Sciences, Chuka University, P.O.Box 109-60400, Chuka, Kenya and Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soil Sciences, Egerton University, P.O.Box 536, Egerton, Kenya.

Prof. J. N. Aguyoh
Department of Agriculture and Environmental Studies, Rongo University College, P.O.Box 1023-40404, Rongo, Kenya.

G. Liu
Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soil Sciences, Egerton University, P.O.Box 536, Egerton, Kenya.

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Temperature and Elementary Carriers of Heat | Chapter 08 | Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1

The experimentally determined temperature of a substance is a comparative value relative to the extensive property of another system (thermometers, thermocouples, etc.) taken as the initial measurement standard or reference point. Therefore, the concept of temperature, which we face at first glance seems to be a very simple value, but in fact it is a complex parameter that characterizes the state of the system at the same time on the micro-and macroscopic formations. When considering the properties of substances at the macro level, as a rule, there are many difficulties with the interpretation of micro-phenomena, which is due to the lack of understanding and specific ideas about micro-objects. In turn, micro-objects are constituent elements of macro-objects. This leads to an incomplete understanding of the processes occurring in macro objects. Meanwhile, the micro-macroscopic properties of substances are manifested at the same time and are combined by quantitative and qualitative characteristics: The amount of internal energy, temperature, mole, Planck’s, Boltzmann’s constants etc. At the same time, the value of temperature, which is estimated by comparing extensive properties of measuring instruments is considered the result of the chaotic motion of molecules of system as stated in statistical physics. This work reveals the physical meaning of the concept “temperature” and describes the nature of elementary carriers of heat and its relationship to temperature. The calculated energy of the portable “theplotron” and the mass of photons and “theplotron”, which represent a kind of “electromagnetic particles”. These particles take part in the implementation of the Coulomb electric interaction and prevents annihilation; are in combination with electrons and the nature of their motion determines the thermal, optical, magnetic, electrical and other properties. The frequency of pulsations of “electromagnetic particles” determines the physical meaning of the temperature and the internal pressure of the system. The pulsation of the particles creates a standing wave, and their directed collective motion in a free form represents a seeming traveling wave which is taken as an “electromagnetic wave”.

Author(s) Details

Dr. B. T. Utelbayev
Kazakh-British Technical University, Kazakhstan.

E. N. Suleimenov
Kazakh-British Technical University, Kazakhstan.

A. B. Utelbayeva
M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University, Kazakhstan.

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